NCAR Climate Data Guide Content with Tag: Global

Climate Data Guide: AIRS V6-L2
AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder): Version 6 Level 2
Years of Record: 2002/08 to 2017/05
AIRS Version 6 Level 2 data represent a significant improvement over AIRS Version 5 Level 2 products in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality. Several algorithmic improvements have been made by the AIRS Project in conjunction with the AIRS Science Team. Improvements include: (a)...
Formats: HDF | HDF-EOS Timestep: Sub-daily Domain: Global
AIRS and AMSU: Trace Gases (CO2, CO, CH4, O3...); Level 3
AIRS provides satellite retrieval of mid-tropospheric carbon dioxide even under cloudy conditions, without the use of a priori information from models. AIRS retrievals use cloud-cleared thermal IR radiance spectra in the 15 micron band with an accuracy better than 2 ppm. AIRS retrievals have been...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | HDF-EOS Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
AIRS and AMSU: Tropospheric air temperature and specific humidity
Years of Record: 2002/09 to 2011/05
The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) project has generated decadal-length, global, gridded data sets of temperature and specific humidity for several standard levels in the troposphere for the obs4MIPS project. This obs4MIPS version of the AIRS data are available at monthly resolution, 1ºx1º...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Argo float locations Source: http://www-hrx.ucsd.edu/www-argo/statusbig.gif
Argo Ocean Temperature and Salinity Profiles
Years of Record: 2000/01 to 2017/01
Argo is an array of over 3600 profiling floats distributed almost uniformly across the global oceans. First deployed in 2000, Argo floats provide temperature and salinity profiles from the surface to a depth of 2000m. The array has approximately 1 float for every 3 degrees of latitude and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image
AVISO: Satellite derived Sea Surface Height above Geoid
Years of Record: 1992/10 to 2010/12
The sea surface height relative to the geoid (the mean ocean surface of the Earth if the ocean is at rest) is derived from TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Jason-1, and OSTM/Jason-2 altimetry measurements. Altimetry is a technique for measuring height. Satellite altimetry measures the time taken by a radar...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
CALIPSO
Years of Record: 2006/06 to 2017/01
CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. It flies in formation with five other satellites in the international "A-Train" constellation for...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily Domain: Global
Estimated net flux of carbon from land to atmosphere due to land use change.
Carbon Emissions from Historical Land-Use and Land-Use Change
Years of Record: 1800/01 to 2012/09
Annual net land-atmosphere carbon flux and net flux of carbon to the atmosphere due to land-use and land-use change (LULUC) are estimated using an integrated assessment model and three historical reconstructions of land use and land use conversion. The data span 1800-2010 and are aggregated for...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Annual Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Meiyappan, Prasanth
Wind speed and direction estimated by CCMPv2 (contributed by L. Ricciardulli)
CCMP: Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform wind vector analysis
Years of Record: 1987/07 to 2016/05
The CCMP wind analysis is a near-global, high spatial and temporal resolution gridded dataset of surface wind vectors spanning 1987-present.  The input data are a combination of inter-calibrated satellite data from numerous radiometers and scatterometers and in-situ data from moored buoys....
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Sub-daily Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Ricciardulli, Lucrezia
Tropical Instability Waves (contributed by E. de Boisseson)
CERA-20C: ECMWF's Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Reanalysis of the 20th Century
Years of Record: 1901/01 to 2010/12
The CERA-20C is a global, coupled reanalysis spanning 1901-2010 with a focus on low-frequency climate variability.  Similar to ERA-20C, the surface observations assimilated include surface pressures from the International Surface Pressure Databank v3.2.6 and ICOADS v 2.5.1, and surface winds...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Laloyaux, Patrick
CERES EBAF: Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy Systems (CERES) Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF)
Years of Record: 2000/03 to 2017/02
The CERES-EBAF product provides 1-degree regional, zonal and global monthly mean Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface (SFC) longwave (LW), shortwave (SW), and net (NET) fluxes under clear and all-sky conditions. EBAF is used for climate model evaluation, estimating the Earth's global mean...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
CERES: IGBP Land Classification
The International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) defines ecosystems surface classifications. The CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System)10-minute data can be used to derive the land categories. Other, finer resolution gridded surface data are available.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
CHOMPS: CICS High-Resolution Optimally Interpolated Microwave Precipitation from Satellites
Years of Record: 1998/01 to 2007/12
CHOMPS utilizes all available passive microwave satellite estimates to develop improved global daily rainfall time series. No IR values are used. Satellite sources include SSM/I, AMSU, AMSR-E and TRMM. The most recent/accurate and consistent retrieval schemes have been used in the creation of the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
CLARA figure submitted by M. Stengel
CLARA-A1: Cloud properties, surface albedo and surface radiation products based on AVHRR
Years of Record: 1982/01 to 2009/12
"CLARA-A1 (CLoud, Albedo and RAdiation dataset, AVHRR-based, version 1) is a global dataset of cloud properties, surface albedo and surface radiation products, generated by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF). The products are derived from measurements of the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Pentad Domain: Global
Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR)
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2011/01
The CFSR is a third generation reanalysis product. It is a global, high resolution, coupled atmosphere-ocean-land surface-sea ice system designed to provide the best estimate of the state of these coupled domains over this period. The CFSR includes (1) coupling of atmosphere and ocean during the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Cloud observations from MODIS
Years of Record: 1999/12 to 2017/05
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is scanning instrument that makes measurements in 36 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared at spatial resolutions from 250 m to 1 km. There are MODIS instruments aboard two sun-synchronous polar-orbiting NASA satellites:...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | HDF-EOS Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
CloudSat
Years of Record: 2006/06 to 2010/11
CloudSat is a satellite mission designed to measure the vertical structure of clouds from space. The radar data produces detailed images of cloud structures. CloudSat is one of a constellation of satellites known as the A-Train (Cloudsat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, Aqua, Aura, GCOM-W1). The satellites fly...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
January mean precipitation in CMAP (contributed by P Arkin)
CMAP: CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2017/07
CMAP refers to a collection of precipitation data sets, though the 2.5°x2.5° global monthly version is probably the most widely used. This data set is constructed from an analysis of gauge data and satellite-derived precipitation estimates. An "enhanced" version (CMAP/A) is also available, which...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly,Pentad Domain: Global
Heat Content Trend
CMCC Global Ocean Reanalysis System (C-GLORS)
Years of Record: 1982/01 to 2013/12
"The CMCC Global Ocean Physical Reanalysis System (C-GLORS) is used  to simulate the state of the ocean in the last decades. It consists of a variational data assimilation system (OceanVar), capable of assimilating all in-situ observations along with altimetry data, and a forecast step...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: CMORPH
CMORPH (CPC MORPHing technique): High resolution precipitation (60S-60N)
Years of Record: 2002/12 to 2017/04
"CMORPH (CPC MORPHing technique) produces global precipitation analyses at very high spatial and temporal resolution. This technique uses precipitation estimates that have been derived from low orbiter satellite microwave observations exclusively, and whose features are transported via spatial...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily Domain: Global
Combined CloudSat spaceborne radar and CALIPSO spaceborne lidar cloud fraction dataset
Years of Record: 2006/07 to 2011/02
A global (82S-82N) cloud fraction data set, providing a unique view of cloud vertical structure, has been developed based on the complimentary spaceborne remote sensing capabilities of the CloudSat radar and the CALISPSO lidar. The data set provides monthly mean cloud fraction over several vertical...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly,Seasonal,Annual Domain: Global
COREv2 Air-Sea Surface Fluxes
Years of Record: 1949/01 to 2006/12
The Coordinated Ocean Research Experiments version 2  (COREv2) data set consists of a globally complete set of air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and freshwater for 1948-2009 at monthly resolution.  This data set serves as a set of common atmospheric boundary conditions that has been used...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
CoRTAD: Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (SST)
Years of Record: 1985/01 to 2005/12
"The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for coral reef ecosystem applications but relevant to other ecosystems as well. In addition to SST, it contains SST anomaly (SSTA,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Weekly Domain: Global
COSP: Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package
Cloud processes and feedbacks are recognized as the largest uncertainty in climate model projections of climate change. Progress in understanding the roles of clouds in climate change has in part been hampered by the lack of a consistent definition of clouds and cloud types in models and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image
CPC Unified Gauge-Based Analysis of Global Daily Precipitation
Years of Record: 1948/01 to 2015/12
A gauge-based analysis of daily precipitation has been constructed over the global land areas. Gauge reports from over 30,000 stations are collected from multiple sources including GTS, COOP, and other national and international agencies. Quality control is performed through comparisons with...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
CRU TS Gridded precipitation and other meteorological variables since 1901
Years of Record: 1901/01 to 2015/12
The CRU TS series of data sets (CRU TS = Climatic Research Unit Timeseries) contain monthly timeseries of precipitation, daily maximum and minimum temperatures, cloud cover, and other variables covering Earth's land areas for 1901-2015 (CRU TS4.0 is a recent release). The data set is gridded to 0....
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE): 1985-89
Years of Record: 1985/01 to 1989/12
The Goddard Space Flight Center built the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) on which the first ERBE instruments were launched by the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ERBE instruments were also launched on two National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather monitoring satellites, NOAA...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
ERA-15
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 1993/12
The ERA-15 production system generated re-analyses for 15 years (1979-1993)  using a special version of their 1995 operational data assimilation system and model. The resulting analyses include full model resolution analyses or  reduced resolution analyses and climate and statistics data...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Monthly Domain: Global
SLP anomaly in DJF 1925-26 in ERA-20C
ERA-20C: ECMWF's atmospheric reanalysis of the 20th century (and comparisons with NOAA's 20CR)
Years of Record: 1900/01 to 2011/01
The ECMWF's first atmospheric reanalysis of the 20th Century, ERA-20C, provides a long, gridded dataset of many climate variables, spanning 1900-2010.  Observations assimilated include surface pressures from the International Surface Pressure Databank v3.2.6 and ICOADS v 2.5.1, and surface...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: ERA-Interim
ERA-Interim
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2017/06
Using a much improved atmospheric model and assimilation system from those used in ERA-40, ERA-Interim represents a third generation reanalysis. Several of the inaccuracies exhibited by ERA-40 such as too-strong precipitation over oceans from the early 1990's onwards and a too-strong Brewer-Dobson...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
ERA-Interim: derived components
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2015/12
Era-Interim data are used to derive monthly mass, moisture and energy budget products. Each term is available. Atmospheric energy, mass, and moisture budgets can be computed by vertically integrating reanalysis fields and employing suitable corrections (e.g. mass). The budgets are uniquely...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
ERA40
Years of Record: 1957/09 to 2002/08
ERA 40 is a second generation reanalysis. It is the first reanalysis to directly assimilate satellite radiance data (TOVS, SSM/I, ERS and ATOVS). Cloud Motion Winds are also used. The result is better circulation over the tropics and southern hemisphere. However, unless comparing  to previous...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports Archive (EECRA) from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe
Years of Record: 1952/01 to 2008/12
"The Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports Archive makes use of routine synoptic observations made by humans on ships over the ocean and at weather stations over land. Following the synoptic code (WMO, 1974), observers report the fraction of sky dome covered by all clouds, the fraction of sky dome...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Sub-daily Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: FLASHFlux
FLASHFlux: Fast Longwave And Shortwave Radiative Fluxes
Years of Record: 2016/11 to 2017/08
FLASHFlux provides near real-time (7-8 days) quantification of surface radiative fluxes which are important for understanding the impact of changes to the Earth's surface and the atmospheric state on surface radiative fluxes. An operational subsystem which uses a portion of the existing CERES...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: HDF Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
FLUXNET
"FLUXNET is a global network of micrometeorological flux measurement sites that measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. At present over 140 sites are operating on a long-term and continuous basis. Vegetation under study includes...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Sub-daily Domain: Global
FLUXNET: MTE (Multi-Tree Ensemble)
Years of Record: 1982/01 to 2007/12
Global, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of carbon and water fluxes derived from empirical up-scaling eddy covariance measurements would constitute a new and possibly powerful data stream to study the variability of the global terrestrial carbon and water cycle. Jung et al (2009)
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: Freshwater Discharge
Freshwater Discharge: 1948-2004
Years of Record: 1948/01 to 2004/12
"A dataset of historical monthly streamflow at the farthest downstream stations for the world’s 925 largest ocean-reaching rivers has been created for community use. Compared with previous studies, the new dataset has improved homogeneity and enables more reliable assessments of decadal and long-...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
GFED: Global Fire Emissions Database
Years of Record: 1997/01 to 2015/12
The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED)  "combines satellite information on fire activity and vegetation productivity to estimate gridded monthly burned area and fire emissions, as well as scalars that can be used to calculate higher temporal resolution emissions."
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: HDF Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Annual Domain: Global
GHGH-M temperature anomalies for March 2014 (source NCDC)
GHCN (Global Historical Climatology Network) Related Gridded Products
Years of Record: 1870/01 to 2014/05
Long time series of gridded surface temperature and precipitation data derived from homongenized station data. The gridded anomalies were produced from GHCN-M bias corrected data. GHCN data and CAMS (Climate Anomaly Monitoring System) are combined to produce a high resolution 'real-time' product.
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Distribution of GHCN-D stations (contributed by K. McKinnon)
GHCN-D: Global Historical climatology Network daily temperatures
Years of Record: 1880/01 to 2016/03
The Global Historical Climatology Network Daily database, GHCN-D, contains meteorological measurements from over 90,000 stations across the globe.  The majority of station records contain precipitation data only, however other key variables including maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
NCAR Climate Data Guide Image using GHCNDEX data.
GHCNDEX: Gridded Temperature and Precipitation Climate Extremes Indices (CLIMDEX data)
Years of Record: 1951/01 to 2014/02
GHCNDEX provides gridded, station-based indices of temperature- and precipitation- related climate extremes. It is intended for climate change detection and attribution studies, climate model evaluation, and operational monitoring of extreme climatic events. Twenty-six indices, including daily...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: GHRSST
GHRSST: Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature
Years of Record: 2006/01 to 2012/12
The Group for High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST; GHRSST) provides a new generation of global high-resolution (
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily Domain: Global
Mean annual temperature from UDEL v3.0.1 (credit: D Schneider, ClimateDataGuide)
Global (land) precipitation and temperature: Willmott & Matsuura, University of Delaware
Years of Record: 1900/01 to 2014/12
A series of gridded temperature and precipitation data sets. Station records that served as bases for the Terrestrial Air Temperature: 1900-2014 Gridded Monthly Time Series (Version 4.01) and Terrestrial Precipitation: 1900-2014 Gridded Monthly Time Series (Version 4.01) archives are used here to...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
Global Mean Sea Level from TOPEX & Jason Altimetry
Years of Record: 1992/10 to 2015/10
The global mean sea level timeseries is an excellent, integrative indicator of climate change, providing a record independent of common metrics like global surface air temperature.  The major contributions to the observed sea level trend of 3.3 mm/year include the ocean's thermal expansion,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image:  thermospheric sea level change
Global Ocean Heat and Thermospheric Sea Level Change
Years of Record: 1955/01 to 2010/12
Using updated data from the World Ocean Database (Boyer et al, 2009) and improved ARGO profiling data, new estimates of ocean heat content and thermospheric sea level change (0-2000m) for the period 1955-2010 are derived.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly,Seasonal,Annual Domain: Global
zonal-mean trend in ocean salinity
Global Ocean Salinity Change, 1950-2008 (Durack-Wijffels)
Years of Record: 1950/01 to 2009/04
Using data from the Indian Ocean Hydrobase (IOHB) (Kobayashi et al., 2006), Hydrobase2 (Curry, 2002), and Southern Ocean Atlas (Orsi and Whitworth, 2010) databases along with the improved spatial and temporal coverage provided by ARGO profiling data, new estimates of ocean salinity and temperature...
Formats: netCDF | Image Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
Global Permafrost Zonation Index Map
This data set contains a global (excluding Antarctica) 1 km map of permafrost zonation. It is an estimate of to what degree permafrost exists in a region nearly everywhere, or only in the most favorable conditions. These local conditions affecting permafrost occurrence will partly exhibit regional...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary | KML Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
change of annual temperature in the GISTEMP data; ClimataDataGuide figure.
Global surface temperature data: GISTEMP: NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Surface Temperature Analysis
Years of Record: 1880/01 to 2016/11
NASA Goddard's Global Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) combines land surface air temperatures primarily from the GHCN-M version 3 with SSTs of the ERSSTv3b analysis into a comprehensive global surface temperature data set spanning 1880 to the present at monthly resolution, on a 2x2 degree...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Change of temperature between 1901:1920 and 1991:2010 based on the HadCRUT4 dataset. Credit: ClimateDataGuide, NCAR
Global surface temperature data: HadCRUT4 and CRUTEM4
Years of Record: 1850/01 to 2017/06
Extending back to 1850 and frequently updated, HadCRUT4 is the longest data set of its type. HadCRUT4 is a combination of the global land surface temperature data set, CRUTEM4 and the global SST data set, HadSST3. HadCRUT4 is different from the most closely comparable products (e.g. NASA GISTEMP...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | KML Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
Change of temperature in the MLOST data set.
Global surface temperature data: MLOST: NOAA Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis
Years of Record: 1871/01 to 2016/11
NOAA's Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (MLOST) combines land surface air temperatures primarily from the Global Historical Climatology Network, Monthly (GHCN-M) version 3 with SSTs of the ERSSTv3b analysis into a comprehensive global surface temperature data set spanning 1880 to the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Change of temperature in the Berkeley Earth data Set.
Global surface temperatures: BEST: Berkeley Earth Surface Temperatures
Years of Record: 1701/01 to 2013/03
The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperatures (BEST) are a set of data products, originally a gridded reconstruction of land surface air temperature records spanning 1701-present, and now including an 1850-present merged land-ocean data set that combines the land analysis with an interpolated...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Climatology,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Change of surface temperatures in 5 global data sets. credit: NCAR, climatedataguide
Global Temperature Data Sets: Overview & Comparison Table
Years of Record: 1850/01 to 2013/10
Global surface temperature data sets are an essential resource for monitoring and understanding climate variability and climate change. The most commonly used data sets combine historical observations of near surface air temperatures at land stations with global data sets of sea surface...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
GLODAP: GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project for Carbon
Years of Record: 2013/09
The GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a cooperative effort to coordinate global synthesis projects funded through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the Joint Global Ocean...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
GODAS: NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System
Years of Record: 2016/01 to 2016/12
GODAS is a real-time ocean analysis and a reanalysis. It is used for monitoring, retrospective analysis as well as for providing oceanic initial conditions for the CFS. Both temperature and synthetic salinity profiles are assimilated in a 3DVAR scheme. Beginning with March 2007, altimetry sea level...
Formats: netCDF | GRIB Timestep: Monthly,Pentad Domain: Global
Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 2c (GSSTF 2c)
Years of Record: 1987/01 to 2008/12
This data set (GSSTF 2C) has been superceded by GSSTF3 released in July 2012. The Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF) data set is part of the NASA Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Project. The objective of this project is to...
Formats: binary | HDF-EOS Timestep: Climatology,Daily,Monthly,Seasonal,Annual Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: GSSTF3 latent heat flux
Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3)
Years of Record: 1998/01 to 2008/12
Version 3: The Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF) data set is part of the NASA Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Project. The objective of this project is to continually produce a uniform data set of sea surface turbulent fluxes...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: HDF-EOS Timestep: Climatology,Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
GPCC: Global Precipitation Climatology Centre
Years of Record: 1900/01 to 2010/12
The GPCC provides gridded gauge-analysis products derived from quality controlled station data. Two products are for climate: (a) the Full Data Reanalysis Product  (1901-2010) is recommended for global and regional water balance studies, calibration/validation of remote sensing based rainfall...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
Zonal-mean rain frequency in GPCC 1dd (contributed by A. Pendergrass)
GPCP (Daily): Global Precipitation Climatology Project
Years of Record: 1996/10 to 2015/11
The 1DD product provides precipitation estimates on a 1-degree grid over the entire globe at 1-day (daily) for the period October 1996 - present. Both the Pentad and 1DD products are consistent with the Version 2 monthly product in the sense that the Pentad and 1DD approximately sum to the monthly...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Pendergrass, Angeline
Map of significant trends in precipitation, according to GPCP v2.2. (contributed by A. Pendergrass)
GPCP (Monthly): Global Precipitation Climatology Project
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2015/11
Data from rain gauge stations, satellites, and sounding observations have been merged to estimate monthly rainfall on a 2.5-degree global grid from 1979 to the present. The careful combination of satellite-based rainfall estimates provides the most complete analysis of rainfall available to date...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Pendergrass, Angeline
GPM: Global Precipitation Measurement Mission
Years of Record: 2014/03 to 2017/03
The GPM is n international satellite mission launched by NASA and JAXA on Feb. 27, 2014. The GPM is a follow-on to TRMM which, after 17 years, officially came to an end on April 15, 2015. In addition to the moderate and heavy rainfall that TRMM was capable of observing in the tropics, GPM also...
Formats: HDF Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
GRACE: Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment: Surface mass, total water storage, and derived variables
Years of Record: 2002/01 to 2012/09
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) refers to a pair of NASA satellites that has flown in low-Earth orbit since 2002. The satellites use a precise microwave ranging system to measure the distance between themselves due to gravitational acceleration. Onboard GPS instruments determine...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Gridded Climatology of Clouds from Surface Observations Worldwide (1971-2008)
Years of Record: 1954/01 to 2009/12
This digital archive provides multi-year monthly, seasonal, and annual averages in 5x5-degree grid boxes (or 10x10-degree boxes for some quantities over the ocean). Daytime and nighttime averages, as well as the diurnal average (average of day and night), are given. Nighttime averages were computed...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Climatology,Monthly,Seasonal Domain: Global
HadDTR: Hadley Centre sea-surface temperature diurnal temperature range climatology
The Hadley Centre sea-surface temperature diurnal temperature range climatology is a 5x5 degree gridded climatology of the diurnal range of sea surface temperature as measured by drifting buoys.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
NCAR Climate Data Guide Image using HadEX2 data.
HadEX2: Gridded Temperature and Precipitation Climate Extremes Indices (CLIMDEX data)
Years of Record: 1901/01 to 2010/12
HadEX2 provides gridded, station-based indices of temperature- and precipitation- related climate extremes. It is intended for climate change detection and attribution studies and climate model evaluation. Twenty-nine indices, including daily maximum and minimum temperatures, number of frost days,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly,Annual Domain: Global
HadGHCNDEX - Gridded Daily Temperature Extremes
Years of Record: 1950/01 to 2011/12
HadGHCND (aka HadGHCNDEX) is a gridded daily dataset of near-surface maximum (TX) and minimum (TN) temperature observations. Anomalies (departures from 1961-1990 climatology) and actual temperatures are distributed in two separate files. The dataset is designed primarily for the analysis of...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
Harmonized Soil Carbon Database
Years of Record: 2013/09
"This state-of-the-art database was established by IIASA and FAO in partnership with: ISRIC-World Soil Information which, together with the FAO, contributed recent regional soil and terrain databases together with the WISE soil profile database; The European Soil Bureau Network, which provided...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ARC/INFO ASCII GRID Domain: Global
Historical land-cover changes and land-use conversions global data set by Meiyappan and Jain
Years of Record: 1800/01 to 2010/12
A set of three estimates of land-cover types and annual transformations of land use are provided on a global 0.5°x0.5° grid at annual timesteps. The longest of the three estimates spans 1770-2010. The three estimates use three different data sets of cropland and pastureland. Common input data...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Annual Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Meiyappan, Prasanth
HOAPS: Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data
Years of Record: 1987/01 to 2008/12
The Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) set is a satellite-based climatology of precipitation, evaporation and freshwater budget (evaporation minus precipitation) as well as related turbulent heat fluxes and atmospheric state variables over the global ice free...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Climatology,Sub-daily,Monthly,Pentad Domain: Global
IBTrACS: Tropical cyclone best track data
IBTrACS (International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship) provides global tropical cyclone best track data in a centralized location to aid our understanding of the distribution, frequency, and intensity of tropical cyclones worldwide. The World Meteorological Organization Tropical Cyclone...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | shapefile Domain: Global
ICOADS Surface Marine Weather Observations
Years of Record: 1800/01 to 2016/09
ICOADS (International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set) is the most comprehensive archive of global marine surface climate observations available. Variables include SST, SLP, air temperature, wind speed, cloud amount, and others. There is no processing beyond initial quality control. ICOADS...
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary | IMMA Timestep: Climatology,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
ISCCP: International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project
Years of Record: 1983/07 to 2009/12
The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) makes use of routine observations by operational weather satellites to provide a long-term (1983-2009), gridded, global record of cloud properties. ISCCP uses observations in the visible and infrared window portions of the spectrum to...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary | HDF Timestep: Climatology,Sub-daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Japanese Ocean Flux Data sets with Use of Remote Sensing Observations (J-OFURO2)
Years of Record: 1988/01 to 2006/12
These ocean surface flux data sets are derived primarily using data from multiple satellites. The COARE 3.0 bulk algorithm [Fairall et al. (2003)] is used in J-OFURO2 for the estimation of sensible and latent heat fluxes.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
JRA-25
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2004/12
JRA-25 is a second generation reanalysis product. The model and data assimilation are from the operational system in April 2004. It was the first reanalysis to assimilate wind profiles around tropical cyclones deduced from best-track data, resulting in improved tropical cyclone analysis in a global...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Monthly Domain: Global
JRA-55
Years of Record: 1957/12 to 2017/07
Spanning 1958-present, JRA-55 is the longest third-generation reanalysis that uses the full observing system (in contrast, products like ERA-20C and NOAA 20CR assimilate a very limited set of observations while NCEP R1 uses an antiquated model and assimilation scheme).  Compared to the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Monthly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Kobayashi, Shinya
JRA55 (top panel) compared with JRA-55C (bottom panel)
JRA-55C (reanalysis using conventional observations)
Years of Record: 1972/10 to 2013/01
JRA-55C is a fixed observing system atmospheric reanalysis that uses the same model and data assimilation scheme as JRA-55. The observations assimilated include surface station data, radiosondes, tropical cyclone retrievals and wind profilers.  No satellite observations are included.  JRA...
Formats: GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Monthly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Kobayashi, Chiaki
Kaplan Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies
Years of Record: 1856/01 to 2017/07
The most up-to-date version is known as Kaplan Extended SST v2, which combines statistically infilled grids of UK Met Office SSTs for 1856-1981 with a statistically reduced and coarser resolution version of Smith and Reynolds Optimally Interpolated (OI) SSTs for 1981 to present. Those desiring only...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
LANDSAT
Years of Record: 1972/01 to 2013/09
"The Landsat Program provides the longest continuous space-based record of Earth’s land in existence. Since 1972, Landsat satellites have collected measurements of Earth’s continents and surrounding coastal regions that have enabled people to study forests, food production, water and land use,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Timestep: Sub-daily Domain: Global
Landscape surface freeze/thaw status based on passive microwave remote sensing
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2011/09
A global data set of the frozen state of the land surface (free-thaw (FT) status) has been developed spanning 1979-present at a daily timestep and 25 x 25 km spatial resolution. Based on passive microwave remote sensing, the FT parameter is closely related to the surface energy budget, hydrologic...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary | GeoTIFF | HDF Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
Liquid Water Path (LWP): UWisc climatology
Years of Record: 1998/01 to 2008/12
"This work describes a new climatology of cloud liquid water path (LWP), termed the University of Wisconsin (UWisc) climatology, derived from 18 yr of satellite-based passive microwave observations over the global oceans. The climatology is based on a modern retrieval methodology applied...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
Merged Hadley-NOAA/OI Sea Surface Temperature & Sea-Ice Concentration (Hurrell et al, 2008)
Years of Record: 1870/01 to 2016/03
The merged Hadley-OI sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice concentration (SIC) data sets were specifically developed as surface forcing data sets for AMIP style uncoupled simulations of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The Hadley Centre's SST/SIC version 1.1 (HADISST1), which is derived...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global, Antarctic, Arctic, NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere
MODIS GPP/NPP Project (MOD17)
Years of Record: 2000/01 to 2012/12
The goal of the MOD17 MODIS project is to provide continuous estimates of Gross/Net Primary Production (GPP/NPP) across Earth’s entire vegetated land surface. MOD17 GPP/NPP outputs are useful for natural resource and land management, global carbon cycle analysis, ecosystem status assessment, and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: HDF-EOS Timestep: Monthly,Weekly,Annual Domain: Global
MSU/AMSU Atmospheric Temperature Climate Data Record, Remote Sensing Systems (RSS)
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2012/12
A long (30-year+) data set of atmospheric temperatures for 4 tropopsheric and lower stratopsheric layers has been derived from brightness temperatures measured by the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). This page describes the data sets developed by Remote...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
NASA MERRA
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2016/11
The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) was undertaken by NASA’s Global Modeling and Assimilation Office with two primary objectives: to place observations from NASA’s Earth Observing System satellites into a climate context and to improve upon the hydrologic...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | HDF Timestep: Sub-daily,Monthly Domain: Global
NCEP Reanalysis (R2)
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2017/08
NCEP-DOE Reanalysis II (R2) is an improved version of the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis I (R1). The improvements include an updated model with better physical parameterizations, assorted data assimilation errors were fixed and additional data were included. Still, it is still a 'first generation' product.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
NCEP-NCAR (R1): An Overview
Years of Record: 1948/01 to 2017/07
NCEP-NCAR (R1) is the original reanalysis effort. It uses a frozen global state-of-the-art global data assimilation system (as of 11 January 1995). The original database was enhanced (additional, quality checked datasets) by NCAR's Data Support Section. Originally planned to span 1957-96 ("40-Year...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide image
NOAA 20th-Century Reanalysis, Version 2 and 2c
Years of Record: 1850/12 to 2014/12
The Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) provides a comprehensive global atmospheric circulation data set spanning 1850-2014. Its chief motivation is to provide an observational validation data set, with quantified uncertainties, for assessing climate model simulations of the 20th century, with...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | GRIB Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: OAFlux
OAFlux: Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes for the global oceans.
Years of Record: 1958/01 to 2012/12
"The OAFlux project aims to provide consistent, multi-decade, global analysis of air-sea heat, freshwater (evaporation), and momentum fluxes for use in studies of global energy budget, water cycle, atmosphere and ocean circulation, and climate. The OAFlux project is so called because it applies...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Ocean heat content: ARGO
Ocean heat content for 10-1500m depth based on Argo
Years of Record: 2005/01 to 2011/12
A regularly updated monthly timeseries of ocean heat content, based on Argo profiles, is integrated over 10-1500m depth and the latitudes 60°S-60°N. Coverage begins in 2005. It is estimated based on the method described in von Schuckmann and Le Traon (2011) and discussed in the context of other...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by von Schuckmann, Karina
Ocean Productivity: Phytoplankton size estimates (satellite)
Years of Record: 2013/09
Estimates of ocean net primary production (NPP)  "At this time, Standard Products are based on the original description of the Vertically Generalized Production Model (VGPM) ( Behrenfeld & Falkowski 1997a), MODIS surface chlorophyll concentrations (Chlsat), MODIS sea surface temperature...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: HDF Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
ocean energy budget based on IAP ocean temperature analysis (contributed by L Cheng)
Ocean temperature analysis and heat content estimate from Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Years of Record: 1940/01 to 2016/12
The Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) ocean temperature analysis features global coverage of the oceans, at 1° x1° horizontal resolution on 41 vertical levels from 1-2000m, and monthly resolution from 1940 to present.  As such, it is aimed at studies of climate variability and change,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: ORAS4
ORAS4: ECMWF Ocean Reanalysis and derived ocean heat content
Years of Record: 1958/01 to 2013/04
ECMWF's current ocean reanalysis uses a sophisticated data assimilation methodology which includes a model bias correction. The ocean model used is forced by atmospheric daily surface fluxes, relaxed to SST and bias corrected. The Balmaseda et al (QJRMS 2013) reference provides excellent peer...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR): HIRS
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2012/12
"The new Climate Data Record (CDR) provides daily global climate data that are valuable as inputs into Radiation Budget Studies and verifying numerical models and can identify the variations in tropical clouds and rainfall that drive global weather patterns. The daily climate data of OLR can...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR): AVHRR
Years of Record: 1974/06 to 2013/12
OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) is a measure of the amount of energy emitted to space by earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere. As such, it is a critical component of the earth's radiation budget. In a different context, OLR values are often used as a proxy for convection in tropical and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Climatology,Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI)
The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) uses readily available temperature and precipitation data to estimate relative dryness. It is a standardized index that spans -10 (dry) to +10 (wet). It has been reasonably successful at quantifying long-term drought. As it uses temperature data and a...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
rainfall estimates during Hurican Katrina from PERSIANN-CDR (contributed by H. Ashouri)
PERSIANN-CDR: Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks - Climate Data Record
Years of Record: 1983/01 to 2017/05
The Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks- Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) provides daily rainfall estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees in the latitude band 60S - 60N from 1983 to the near-present. The precipitation...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: PREC/L
Precipitation Reconstruction Land (PREC/L): 1948-present
Years of Record: 1948/01 to 2017/07
Precipitation gauge measurements over land from the GHCN-v2 (Global Historical Climatology Network version 2) are interpolated onto 3 grids: at 0.5, 1 and 2.5 degree resolutions via optimal interpolation. Note: As of May, 2011 the GHCN version 3 station data set is available.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide QuikSCAT image1
QuikSCAT: near sea-surface wind speed and direction
Years of Record: 1999/08 to 2009/10
The QuikSCAT mission was intended to obtain sea-surface wind speed and direction data under all weather and cloud conditions over Earth's oceans. SeaWinds, an active radar scatterometer, is the main instrument on the QuikSCAT satellite. The microwave backscatter measured by SeaWinds is dependent on...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Ricciardulli, Lucrezia
Radiative kernels from climate models
The radiative kernel technique is a method used to quantify radiative feedbacks in response to global warming.  Radiative kernels are commonly calculated for the water vapor, lapse rate, temperature and albedo feedbacks.  Radiative kernels are used to deconstruct the various contributions...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Pendergrass, Angeline
Randolph Glacier Inventory data base of global glacier outlines
The Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) is a global data base of glacier outlines. It is intended for estimates of ice volume and glacier mass at regional and global scales. The data are organized into 19 large regions, with a shapefile provided for each region. The RGI is produced as part of the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: shapefile Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
SeaWIFS: ocean bio-optical and carbon properties
Years of Record: 2002/01 to 2013/08
The purpose of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project is to provide quantitative data on global ocean bio-optical properties and to assess the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. SeaWiFS data are being used to help clarify the magnitude and variability of chlorophyll and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: HDF Timestep: Climatology,Daily,Monthly,Seasonal,Annual Domain: Global
SOCAT: Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas
Years of Record: 1970/01 to 2007/12
SOCAT (Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas)  represents an effort to "provide a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC)." The data sets are comprised of observations (ship track) and gridded data.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Climatology,Monthly,Annual Domain: Global
SODA: Simple Ocean Data Assimilation
Years of Record: 1870/01 to 2010/12
The Simple Ocean Data Assimilation, or SODA, analysis is an ocean reanalysis data set consisting of gridded variables for the global ocean, as well as several derived fields. The goal is to provide an improved estimate of ocean state from those based solely on observations or numerical simulations.
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
SSM/I, SSMIS: Special Sensor Microwave/Imager and Sounder
Years of Record: 1987/07 to 2015/06
The SSM/I and SSMIS satellites are operated by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and are part of NASA's Pathfinder Program. The instrumentation has been flown on a number of satellites: F-8 (1987), F-10 (November 1990), F-11 (December 1991), F-12 (August 1994), F-13 (March 1995),...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: SSMI (v7) monthly mean rain rate for July, 2012.
SSMI Version 7: Ocean Product Suite
The Ocean Product Suite (v7) from Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) is available in netCDF (v4) format. The RSS Ocean Product Suite includes numerous data products for the SSMI/SSMIS instruments on the DMSP F08, F10, F11, F13, F14, F15, F17 polar orbiting satellites. These are part of the NASA Making...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
SST Data Sets: Overview & Comparison Table
Years of Record: 1850/01 to 2014/04
Sea surface temperature (SST) data sets are an essential resource for monitoring and understanding climate variability and climate change.  By surface area, SSTs are the dominant (~71%) input into merged global land-ocean surface temperature data products.   Historically, SST measurments...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Timestep: Climatology,Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: AMSR-E: Standard error of 'tos' (SST) for July 2006.
SST (AMSR-E): Sea Surface Temperature from Remote Sensing Systems
Years of Record: 2002/06 to 2010/12
High resolution (0.25°) SSTs were derived from the AMSR-E, a passive microwave radiometer flying on NASA's AQUA satellite. Remote Sensing Systems distributes the data in high spatial and temporal (daily, weekly, monthly) resolutions for both daytime and nighttime averages. Monthly versions are...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: SST data: AVHRR Pathfinder v5.2, NOAA NODC
SST data: AVHRR Pathfinder v5.2, NOAA NODC
Years of Record: 1981/01 to 2011/12
"The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 (PFV52) data set was computed using an entirely modernized system, based on SeaDAS and incorporating several key changes over the older Pathfinder V5.0 and V5.1 datasets. PFV52 is viewed as a significant step forward in preparation for the future Version 6 (PFV6)...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Sub-daily Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: COBE SSTs August 2012.
SST data: COBE: Centennial in situ Observation-Based Estimates
Years of Record: 1891/01 to 2017/07
The COBE data set is a spatially complete, interpolated 1°x1° SST product for 1891 to present. It combines SSTs from ICOADS release 2.0, the Japanese Kobe collection, and reports from ships and buoys. Data are gridded using optimal interpolation. As in HadISST, data up to 1941 were bias-adjusted...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: GRIB Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: HadISST v1.1 SST anomalies and sea ice concentration (August 2012).
SST data: HadiSST v1.1
Years of Record: 1870/01 to 2017/05
The Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) is a combination of monthly globally complete fields of SST and sea ice concentration for 1871-present. This page focuses on the SST data; see the separate page for discussion of HadISST sea ice. HadISST uses reduced space...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: HadSST3 (Kennedy et al (2011b)
SST data: HadSST3
Years of Record: 1850/01 to 2014/10
HadSST3 provides monthly SST anomalies on a 5°x5° grid for 1850-present. The anomalies are derived from a 30-year climatology spanning 1961-90.Coverage is global but there is no interpolation; Thus, missing data occur in the final product. The primary input data are from ICOADS release 2.5. Bias...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide ERSST anomalies contributed by B Huang
SST data: NOAA Extended Reconstruction SSTs, version 3 (ERSSTv3 & 3b)
Years of Record: 1854/01 to 2017/07
The NOAA Extended Reconstruction Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) provides global, spatially complete SST data at a monthly timestep for 1854-present. Version3 is based upon statistical interpolation of the ICOADS release 2.4 data. Version 3 includes satellite AVHRR SST data for 1985 onwards....
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
ERSST v4 timeseries (contributed by B Huang)
SST data: NOAA Extended Reconstruction SSTs, Version 4
Years of Record: 1854/01 to 2016/12
The NOAA Extended Reconstruction Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) provides global, spatially complete SST data at a monthly timestep for 1854-present.  Compared to the previous version, Version 4 uses the more extensive ICOADS Release 2.5 data and revised quality control, bias adjustment, and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
SST data: NOAA High-resolution (0.25x0.25) Blended Analysis of Daily SST and Ice, OISSTv2
Years of Record: 1981/09 to 2017/07
"NOAA’s Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface temperature (OISST, also known as Reynolds’ SST) is a series of global analysis products, including the weekly OISST on a 1° grid to the more recent daily on a ¼° grid. An SST analysis is a spatially gridded product created by interpolating and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Banzon, Viva | See Expert Guidance by Reynolds, Richard
Climate Data Guide Image: NOAA OI SST: SST range (C)
SST data: NOAA Optimal Interpolation (OI) SST Analysis, version 2 (OISSTv2) 1x1
Years of Record: 1981/12 to 2017/07
The NOAA Optimal Interpolation SST analysis provides global, spatially complete SSTs on a weekly and monthly basis for 1982-present.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Climatology,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Banzon, Viva | See Expert Guidance by Reynolds, Richard
Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI)
Years of Record: 1901/01 to 2014/03
The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) is an extension of the widely used Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The SPEI is designed to take into account both precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in determining drought. Thus, unlike the SPI, the SPEI...
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly,Seasonal,Annual Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.
Vertical profiles of December climatologies at (65N,270E) for Forcing and RPC.
Stratospheric & Tropospheric Ozone: ACC/SPARC (Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate / Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate)
Years of Record: 1850/01 to 2099/12
"The AC...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Stratospheric Ozone: Randel & Wu 2007
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2005/12
This is a monthly, zonal-mean ozone profile data set spanning 1979–2005 for altitudes from the tropopause up to 50 km. Interannual variability is based on a combination of SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) satellite profile measurements and polar ozonesondes.  The interannual...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: CCMVal2 climatological O3 range (1979-2007).
Stratospheric Ozone: Vertically Resolved, zonal mean based on BDBP
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2007/12
Combined monthly mean vertical ozone profile database spanning the period 1979 to 2007. The database is completely filled such that there are no missing data. The raw individual ozone data are sourced from the BDBP database.  Monthly means are calculated from individual ozone measurements...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
NOCv2.0 Surface Flux and Meteorological Dataset (contributed by E. Kent)
Surface Flux and Meteorological Dataset: National Oceanography Centre (NOC) V2.0
Years of Record: 1973/01 to 2014/12
The National Oceanography Centre  (NOC) Version 2.0 Surface Flux and Meteorological Dataset is a monthly mean gridded dataset of marine surface measurements and derived fluxes constructed using optimal interpolation. Input for the period 1973 to 2006 are ICOADS Release 2.4 ship data and the...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
spatial distibution of tide gaugues
Tide gauge sea level data
Years of Record: 1800/01 to 2016/01
The global sea level record from tide gauges is an important indicator of the evolution and impact of global climate change.  Tide gauge data also capture a variety of local and regional phenomena related to decadal climate variability, tides, storm surges, tsunamis, swells, and other coastal...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly,Annual Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Hamlington, Benjamin | See Expert Guidance by Thompson, Phil
Total column ozone (DU) for March 2011 (patched version).
Total Column Ozone: Bodeker Scientific
Bodeker Scientific produces global, daily, total column ozone database by combining measurements from a number of different satellite-based instruments. Offsets and drifts between the different datasets are resolved through comparisons with the Dobson and Brewer ground-based instruments and through...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
By HalloweenNight - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=44873108
Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) datasets: An overview
Years of Record: 1610/01 to 2016/03
The solar radiation arriving at Earth (once known as the “solar constant”, now usually referred to as Total Solar Irradiance (TSI)), is the most fundamental of climate parameters as it indicates the totality of the energy driving the climate system.  All climate models need to prescribe a...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Domain: Global
UNH/GRDC: Estimated River Runoff
Combines observed river discharge information with a climate-driven Water Balance Model in order to develop composite runoff fields that are consistent with observed discharges. This combination preserves the accuracy of discharge measurements as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: WASWind
WASWind: Wave and Anemometer-based Sea Surface Wind
Years of Record: 1950/01 to 2011/12
"WASWind (Wave and Anemometer-based Sea Surface Wind) provides a bias-corrected marine surface wind dataset over the global oceans. Variables include scalar, zonal and meridional winds at 10-meter high, and zonal and meridional components of wind stress. WASWind has been constructed from wind...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Tokinaga, Hiroki
Water Isotopes from Satellites
Years of Record: 2000/01 to 2012/09
Summary of 7 satellite-derived products providing a global snapshot of water isotope distribution in 3D, with good information on zonal gradients and seasonality.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | HDF Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: NVAP
Water Vapor from NVAP
Years of Record: 1988/01 to 2001/12
The NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP) total column water vapor (aka, precipitable water) data sets comprise a combination of radiosonde observations, Television and Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounders (TOVS), and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data sets....
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
World Ocean Atlas (WOA09)
World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) is a set of objectively analyzed (1 degree grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU), percent oxygen saturation, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at standard depth levels for annual, seasonal, and...
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Climatology,Monthly,Seasonal,Annual Domain: Global
Northwest Atlantic regional Sea Water Salinity Annual fields for period of 1995-2004 at 50m depth (contributed by A. Mishonov)
World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13)
Years of Record: 1955/01 to 2012/12
The World Ocean Atlas (WOA) is a set of climatological mean, gridded fields of oceanographic variables based on in-situ measurements from a wide variety of sources.  Global, decadal averages of temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients are provided at monthly, seasonal and annual averaging...
Formats: netCDF | ascii | shapefile Timestep: Climatology,Monthly,Seasonal Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Mishonov, Alexey
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