NCAR Climate Data Guide Content with Tag: Surface Data Set

Amundsen Sea Low indices
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2015/07
The Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) is a climatological low pressure center located over the extreme southern Pacific Ocean, off the coast of West Antarctica.  Atmospheric variability in this region is larger than anywhere else in the Southern Hemisphere, and exhibits significant correlations with both...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Monthly,Seasonal,Annual Domain: Antarctic, SH - Southern Hemisphere, Southern Ocean
Antarctic Seasonal Pressure Reconstructions 1905-2013
Years of Record: 1905/01 to 2013/12
This dataset consists of seasonally resolved timeseries of surface pressure at 18 Antarctic research stations, spanning 1905-2013.  Routine meteorological observations began at most of these stations only around 1960, leaving a very short instrumental record on which to assess Antarctic...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii | Spreadsheet Timestep: Seasonal Domain: Antarctic
APHRODITE: Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources
Years of Record: 1950/01 to 2007/12
APHRODITE’s (Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation) daily gridded precipitation is the only long-term (1951 onward) continental-scale daily product that contains a dense network of daily rain-gauge data for Asia including the Himalayas, South and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Climatology,Daily Domain: Asia
Climate Data Guide Image
AVISO: Satellite derived Sea Surface Height above Geoid
Years of Record: 1992/10 to 2010/12
The sea surface height relative to the geoid (the mean ocean surface of the Earth if the ocean is at rest) is derived from TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Jason-1, and OSTM/Jason-2 altimetry measurements. Altimetry is a technique for measuring height. Satellite altimetry measures the time taken by a radar...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Estimated net flux of carbon from land to atmosphere due to land use change.
Carbon Emissions from Historical Land-Use and Land-Use Change
Years of Record: 1800/01 to 2012/09
Annual net land-atmosphere carbon flux and net flux of carbon to the atmosphere due to land-use and land-use change (LULUC) are estimated using an integrated assessment model and three historical reconstructions of land use and land use conversion. The data span 1800-2010 and are aggregated for...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Annual Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Meiyappan, Prasanth
Wind speed and direction estimated by CCMPv2 (contributed by L. Ricciardulli)
CCMP: Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform wind vector analysis
Years of Record: 1987/07 to 2016/05
The CCMP wind analysis is a near-global, high spatial and temporal resolution gridded dataset of surface wind vectors spanning 1987-present.  The input data are a combination of inter-calibrated satellite data from numerous radiometers and scatterometers and in-situ data from moored buoys....
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Sub-daily Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Ricciardulli, Lucrezia
CERES: IGBP Land Classification
The International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) defines ecosystems surface classifications. The CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System)10-minute data can be used to derive the land categories. Other, finer resolution gridded surface data are available.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
CHOMPS: CICS High-Resolution Optimally Interpolated Microwave Precipitation from Satellites
Years of Record: 1998/01 to 2007/12
CHOMPS utilizes all available passive microwave satellite estimates to develop improved global daily rainfall time series. No IR values are used. Satellite sources include SSM/I, AMSU, AMSR-E and TRMM. The most recent/accurate and consistent retrieval schemes have been used in the creation of the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
Heat Content Trend
CMCC Global Ocean Reanalysis System (C-GLORS)
Years of Record: 1982/01 to 2013/12
"The CMCC Global Ocean Physical Reanalysis System (C-GLORS) is used  to simulate the state of the ocean in the last decades. It consists of a variational data assimilation system (OceanVar), capable of assimilating all in-situ observations along with altimetry data, and a forecast step...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: CMORPH
CMORPH (CPC MORPHing technique): High resolution precipitation (60S-60N)
Years of Record: 2002/12 to 2017/04
"CMORPH (CPC MORPHing technique) produces global precipitation analyses at very high spatial and temporal resolution. This technique uses precipitation estimates that have been derived from low orbiter satellite microwave observations exclusively, and whose features are transported via spatial...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily Domain: Global
COREv2 Air-Sea Surface Fluxes
Years of Record: 1949/01 to 2006/12
The Coordinated Ocean Research Experiments version 2  (COREv2) data set consists of a globally complete set of air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and freshwater for 1948-2009 at monthly resolution.  This data set serves as a set of common atmospheric boundary conditions that has been used...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
CoRTAD: Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (SST)
Years of Record: 1985/01 to 2005/12
"The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for coral reef ecosystem applications but relevant to other ecosystems as well. In addition to SST, it contains SST anomaly (SSTA,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Weekly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image
CPC Unified Gauge-Based Analysis of Global Daily Precipitation
Years of Record: 1948/01 to 2015/12
A gauge-based analysis of daily precipitation has been constructed over the global land areas. Gauge reports from over 30,000 stations are collected from multiple sources including GTS, COOP, and other national and international agencies. Quality control is performed through comparisons with...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: CRU sc-PDSI
CRU sc-PDSI (self-calibrating PDSI) over Europe & North America
Years of Record: 1901/01 to 2002/12
Maps of the monthly self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (SCPDSI) have been calculated for the period 1901–2002 for the contiguous United States (20°–50°N and 130°–60°W) and Europe (35°–70°N, 10°W–60°E) with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Europe, North America
CRU TS Gridded precipitation and other meteorological variables since 1901
Years of Record: 1901/01 to 2015/12
The CRU TS series of data sets (CRU TS = Climatic Research Unit Timeseries) contain monthly timeseries of precipitation, daily maximum and minimum temperatures, cloud cover, and other variables covering Earth's land areas for 1901-2015 (CRU TS4.0 is a recent release). The data set is gridded to 0....
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: Daymet
Daymet: Daily Surface Weather and Climatological Summaries
Years of Record: 1980/01 to 2015/12
Developed by Dr. Peter E Thornton to fulfill the need for daily climatological data necessary for plant growth model inputs, Daymet generates daily, gridded surfaces of temperature, precipitation, humidity, and radiation over large regions and takes into account areas of complex terrain.
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Climatology,Daily Domain: North America
FLUXNET
"FLUXNET is a global network of micrometeorological flux measurement sites that measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. At present over 140 sites are operating on a long-term and continuous basis. Vegetation under study includes...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Sub-daily Domain: Global
FLUXNET: MTE (Multi-Tree Ensemble)
Years of Record: 1982/01 to 2007/12
Global, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of carbon and water fluxes derived from empirical up-scaling eddy covariance measurements would constitute a new and possibly powerful data stream to study the variability of the global terrestrial carbon and water cycle. Jung et al (2009)
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: Freshwater Discharge
Freshwater Discharge: 1948-2004
Years of Record: 1948/01 to 2004/12
"A dataset of historical monthly streamflow at the farthest downstream stations for the world’s 925 largest ocean-reaching rivers has been created for community use. Compared with previous studies, the new dataset has improved homogeneity and enables more reliable assessments of decadal and long-...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
GFED: Global Fire Emissions Database
Years of Record: 1997/01 to 2015/12
The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED)  "combines satellite information on fire activity and vegetation productivity to estimate gridded monthly burned area and fire emissions, as well as scalars that can be used to calculate higher temporal resolution emissions."
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: HDF Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Annual Domain: Global
GHGH-M temperature anomalies for March 2014 (source NCDC)
GHCN (Global Historical Climatology Network) Related Gridded Products
Years of Record: 1870/01 to 2014/05
Long time series of gridded surface temperature and precipitation data derived from homongenized station data. The gridded anomalies were produced from GHCN-M bias corrected data. GHCN data and CAMS (Climate Anomaly Monitoring System) are combined to produce a high resolution 'real-time' product.
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Distribution of GHCN-D stations (contributed by K. McKinnon)
GHCN-D: Global Historical climatology Network daily temperatures
Years of Record: 1880/01 to 2016/03
The Global Historical Climatology Network Daily database, GHCN-D, contains meteorological measurements from over 90,000 stations across the globe.  The majority of station records contain precipitation data only, however other key variables including maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
NCAR Climate Data Guide Image using GHCNDEX data.
GHCNDEX: Gridded Temperature and Precipitation Climate Extremes Indices (CLIMDEX data)
Years of Record: 1951/01 to 2014/02
GHCNDEX provides gridded, station-based indices of temperature- and precipitation- related climate extremes. It is intended for climate change detection and attribution studies, climate model evaluation, and operational monitoring of extreme climatic events. Twenty-six indices, including daily...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: GHRSST
GHRSST: Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature
Years of Record: 2006/01 to 2012/12
The Group for High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST; GHRSST) provides a new generation of global high-resolution (
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily Domain: Global
Mean annual temperature from UDEL v3.0.1 (credit: D Schneider, ClimateDataGuide)
Global (land) precipitation and temperature: Willmott & Matsuura, University of Delaware
Years of Record: 1900/01 to 2014/12
A series of gridded temperature and precipitation data sets. Station records that served as bases for the Terrestrial Air Temperature: 1900-2014 Gridded Monthly Time Series (Version 4.01) and Terrestrial Precipitation: 1900-2014 Gridded Monthly Time Series (Version 4.01) archives are used here to...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
Global Mean Sea Level from TOPEX & Jason Altimetry
Years of Record: 1992/10 to 2015/10
The global mean sea level timeseries is an excellent, integrative indicator of climate change, providing a record independent of common metrics like global surface air temperature.  The major contributions to the observed sea level trend of 3.3 mm/year include the ocean's thermal expansion,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: Snow Water Climatology
Global Monthly EASE-Grid Snow Water Equivalent Climatology: SSMR, SSMI
Years of Record: 1978/11 to 2007/05
This data set comprises global, monthly satellite-derived snow water equivalent (SWE) climatologies from November 1978 through May 2007, and is updated with more recent data periodically. Global data are gridded to the Northern and Southern 25 km Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grids (EASE-Grids)....
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere
change of annual temperature in the GISTEMP data; ClimataDataGuide figure.
Global surface temperature data: GISTEMP: NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Surface Temperature Analysis
Years of Record: 1880/01 to 2016/11
NASA Goddard's Global Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) combines land surface air temperatures primarily from the GHCN-M version 3 with SSTs of the ERSSTv3b analysis into a comprehensive global surface temperature data set spanning 1880 to the present at monthly resolution, on a 2x2 degree...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Change of temperature between 1901:1920 and 1991:2010 based on the HadCRUT4 dataset. Credit: ClimateDataGuide, NCAR
Global surface temperature data: HadCRUT4 and CRUTEM4
Years of Record: 1850/01 to 2017/06
Extending back to 1850 and frequently updated, HadCRUT4 is the longest data set of its type. HadCRUT4 is a combination of the global land surface temperature data set, CRUTEM4 and the global SST data set, HadSST3. HadCRUT4 is different from the most closely comparable products (e.g. NASA GISTEMP...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | KML Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
Change of temperature in the MLOST data set.
Global surface temperature data: MLOST: NOAA Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis
Years of Record: 1871/01 to 2016/11
NOAA's Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (MLOST) combines land surface air temperatures primarily from the Global Historical Climatology Network, Monthly (GHCN-M) version 3 with SSTs of the ERSSTv3b analysis into a comprehensive global surface temperature data set spanning 1880 to the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Change of temperature in the Berkeley Earth data Set.
Global surface temperatures: BEST: Berkeley Earth Surface Temperatures
Years of Record: 1701/01 to 2013/03
The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperatures (BEST) are a set of data products, originally a gridded reconstruction of land surface air temperature records spanning 1701-present, and now including an 1850-present merged land-ocean data set that combines the land analysis with an interpolated...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Climatology,Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
Change of surface temperatures in 5 global data sets. credit: NCAR, climatedataguide
Global Temperature Data Sets: Overview & Comparison Table
Years of Record: 1850/01 to 2013/10
Global surface temperature data sets are an essential resource for monitoring and understanding climate variability and climate change. The most commonly used data sets combine historical observations of near surface air temperatures at land stations with global data sets of sea surface...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
GPCC: Global Precipitation Climatology Centre
Years of Record: 1900/01 to 2010/12
The GPCC provides gridded gauge-analysis products derived from quality controlled station data. Two products are for climate: (a) the Full Data Reanalysis Product  (1901-2010) is recommended for global and regional water balance studies, calibration/validation of remote sensing based rainfall...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
Zonal-mean rain frequency in GPCC 1dd (contributed by A. Pendergrass)
GPCP (Daily): Global Precipitation Climatology Project
Years of Record: 1996/10 to 2015/11
The 1DD product provides precipitation estimates on a 1-degree grid over the entire globe at 1-day (daily) for the period October 1996 - present. Both the Pentad and 1DD products are consistent with the Version 2 monthly product in the sense that the Pentad and 1DD approximately sum to the monthly...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Pendergrass, Angeline
Map of significant trends in precipitation, according to GPCP v2.2. (contributed by A. Pendergrass)
GPCP (Monthly): Global Precipitation Climatology Project
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2015/11
Data from rain gauge stations, satellites, and sounding observations have been merged to estimate monthly rainfall on a 2.5-degree global grid from 1979 to the present. The careful combination of satellite-based rainfall estimates provides the most complete analysis of rainfall available to date...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Pendergrass, Angeline
GRACE: Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment: Surface mass, total water storage, and derived variables
Years of Record: 2002/01 to 2012/09
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) refers to a pair of NASA satellites that has flown in low-Earth orbit since 2002. The satellites use a precise microwave ranging system to measure the distance between themselves due to gravitational acceleration. Onboard GPS instruments determine...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
HadDTR: Hadley Centre sea-surface temperature diurnal temperature range climatology
The Hadley Centre sea-surface temperature diurnal temperature range climatology is a 5x5 degree gridded climatology of the diurnal range of sea surface temperature as measured by drifting buoys.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
NCAR Climate Data Guide Image using HadEX2 data.
HadEX2: Gridded Temperature and Precipitation Climate Extremes Indices (CLIMDEX data)
Years of Record: 1901/01 to 2010/12
HadEX2 provides gridded, station-based indices of temperature- and precipitation- related climate extremes. It is intended for climate change detection and attribution studies and climate model evaluation. Twenty-nine indices, including daily maximum and minimum temperatures, number of frost days,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly,Annual Domain: Global
HadGHCNDEX - Gridded Daily Temperature Extremes
Years of Record: 1950/01 to 2011/12
HadGHCND (aka HadGHCNDEX) is a gridded daily dataset of near-surface maximum (TX) and minimum (TN) temperature observations. Anomalies (departures from 1961-1990 climatology) and actual temperatures are distributed in two separate files. The dataset is designed primarily for the analysis of...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
Historical land-cover changes and land-use conversions global data set by Meiyappan and Jain
Years of Record: 1800/01 to 2010/12
A set of three estimates of land-cover types and annual transformations of land use are provided on a global 0.5°x0.5° grid at annual timesteps. The longest of the three estimates spans 1770-2010. The three estimates use three different data sets of cropland and pastureland. Common input data...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Annual Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Meiyappan, Prasanth
HOAPS: Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data
Years of Record: 1987/01 to 2008/12
The Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) set is a satellite-based climatology of precipitation, evaporation and freshwater budget (evaporation minus precipitation) as well as related turbulent heat fluxes and atmospheric state variables over the global ice free...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Climatology,Sub-daily,Monthly,Pentad Domain: Global
Hurrell North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index (PC-based)
Years of Record: 1899/01 to 2017/03
The principal component (PC)-based indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are the time series of the leading Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of SLP anomalies over the Atlantic sector, 20°-80°N, 90°W-40°E. These indices are used to measure the NAO throughout the year, tracking the...
Formats: ascii Timestep: Monthly,Seasonal,Annual Domain: Atlantic Ocean
Hurrell North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index (station-based)
Years of Record: 1865/01 to 2017/02
The winter (December thru March) station-based index of the NAO is based on the difference of normalized sea level pressure (SLP) between Lisbon, Portugal and Stykkisholmur/Reykjavik, Iceland since 1864. Positive values of the NAO index are typically associated with stronger-than-average...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Monthly,Seasonal,Annual Domain: Atlantic Ocean
IBTrACS: Tropical cyclone best track data
IBTrACS (International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship) provides global tropical cyclone best track data in a centralized location to aid our understanding of the distribution, frequency, and intensity of tropical cyclones worldwide. The World Meteorological Organization Tropical Cyclone...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | shapefile Domain: Global
Japanese Ocean Flux Data sets with Use of Remote Sensing Observations (J-OFURO2)
Years of Record: 1988/01 to 2006/12
These ocean surface flux data sets are derived primarily using data from multiple satellites. The COARE 3.0 bulk algorithm [Fairall et al. (2003)] is used in J-OFURO2 for the estimation of sensible and latent heat fluxes.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
LANDSAT
Years of Record: 1972/01 to 2013/09
"The Landsat Program provides the longest continuous space-based record of Earth’s land in existence. Since 1972, Landsat satellites have collected measurements of Earth’s continents and surrounding coastal regions that have enabled people to study forests, food production, water and land use,...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Timestep: Sub-daily Domain: Global
Landscape surface freeze/thaw status based on passive microwave remote sensing
Years of Record: 1979/01 to 2011/09
A global data set of the frozen state of the land surface (free-thaw (FT) status) has been developed spanning 1979-present at a daily timestep and 25 x 25 km spatial resolution. Based on passive microwave remote sensing, the FT parameter is closely related to the surface energy budget, hydrologic...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary | GeoTIFF | HDF Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
Marshall Southern Annular Mode (SAM) Index (Station-based)
Years of Record: 1957/01 to 2015/09
The station-based index of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is based on the zonal pressure difference between the latitudes of 40S and 65S.  As such, the SAM index measures a "see-saw" of atmospheric mass between the middle and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.  Positive values of...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Domain: Antarctic, SH - Southern Hemisphere, Southern Ocean
See Expert Guidance by Marshall, Gareth
MEaSUREs Northern Hemisphere Terrestrial Snow Cover Extent Daily 25km EASE-Grid 2.0
Years of Record: 1999/01 to 2012/01
"This data set offers users 25 km Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent represented by four different variables. Three of the snow cover variables are derived from the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System, MODIS Cloud Gap Filled Snow Cover, and passive microwave brightness...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Daily Domain: NH - Northern Hemisphere
MEaSUREs: Northern Hemisphere Terrestrial Snow Cover Extent Weekly 100km EASE-Grid 2.0
Years of Record: 1966/10 to 2012/12
"This data set offers users weekly 100 km Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent represented by three different variables. Two of the variables are derived from individual source products: the NOAA/NCDC Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Extent Climate Data Record and Defense Meteorological Satellite...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Weekly Domain: NH - Northern Hemisphere
Merged Hadley-NOAA/OI Sea Surface Temperature & Sea-Ice Concentration (Hurrell et al, 2008)
Years of Record: 1870/01 to 2016/03
The merged Hadley-OI sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice concentration (SIC) data sets were specifically developed as surface forcing data sets for AMIP style uncoupled simulations of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The Hadley Centre's SST/SIC version 1.1 (HADISST1), which is derived...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global, Antarctic, Arctic, NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere
MODIS GPP/NPP Project (MOD17)
Years of Record: 2000/01 to 2012/12
The goal of the MOD17 MODIS project is to provide continuous estimates of Gross/Net Primary Production (GPP/NPP) across Earth’s entire vegetated land surface. MOD17 GPP/NPP outputs are useful for natural resource and land management, global carbon cycle analysis, ecosystem status assessment, and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: HDF-EOS Timestep: Monthly,Weekly,Annual Domain: Global
Multivariate ENSO Index
Years of Record: 1950/01 to 2013/01
The Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) on the six main observed variables over the tropical Pacific. These six variables are: sea-level pressure (P), zonal (U) and meridional (V) components of the surface wind, sea surface temperature (S), surface air temperature (A), and total cloudiness fraction of...
Formats: ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Pacific Ocean
Climate Data Guide Image: NLDAS July 1980-2009 climatologies
NLDAS: North American Land Data Assimilation System
Years of Record: 1980/01 to 2014/12
The goal of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is to construct quality-controlled, and spatially and temporally consistent, land-surface model (LSM) datasets from the best available observations and model output to support modeling activities. Data sets are available on hourly...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | GRIB Timestep: Climatology,Sub-daily,Monthly Domain: North America
Climate Data Guide Image: ThreadEx
NOAA ThreadEx Long-term Station Extremes for America
Years of Record: 1870/01 to 2011/12
ThreadEx is a data set of extreme daily temperature and precipitation values for 270 locations in the United States. For each day of the year at each station, ThreadEx provides the top 3 record high and low daily maximum temperatures, the top 3 record high and low daily minimum temperatures, the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Daily Domain: North America
Climate Data Guide Image: OAFlux
OAFlux: Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes for the global oceans.
Years of Record: 1958/01 to 2012/12
"The OAFlux project aims to provide consistent, multi-decade, global analysis of air-sea heat, freshwater (evaporation), and momentum fluxes for use in studies of global energy budget, water cycle, atmosphere and ocean circulation, and climate. The OAFlux project is so called because it applies...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Global
spatial pattern of the PDO (contributed by C. Deser)
Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO): Definition and Indices
Years of Record: 1900/01 to 2015/12
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is defined by the leading pattern (EOF) of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Pacific basin (typically, polewards of 20°N).  The SST anomalies are obtained by removing both the climatological annual cycle and the global-mean SST anomaly...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Pacific Ocean
See Expert Guidance by Deser, Clara | See Expert Guidance by Trenberth, Kevin
Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI)
The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) uses readily available temperature and precipitation data to estimate relative dryness. It is a standardized index that spans -10 (dry) to +10 (wet). It has been reasonably successful at quantifying long-term drought. As it uses temperature data and a...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Permafrost: Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground Ice Conditions
The circumpolar permafrost and ground ice data contribute to a unified international data set that depicts the distribution and properties of permafrost and ground ice in the Northern Hemisphere (20°N to 90°N). The re-gridded data set shows discontinuous, sporadic, or isolated permafrost boundaries.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary | shapefile Timestep: Climatology Domain: NH - Northern Hemisphere
rainfall estimates during Hurican Katrina from PERSIANN-CDR (contributed by H. Ashouri)
PERSIANN-CDR: Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks - Climate Data Record
Years of Record: 1983/01 to 2017/05
The Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks- Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) provides daily rainfall estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees in the latitude band 60S - 60N from 1983 to the near-present. The precipitation...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily Domain: Global
PRISM 30-year normal precipitation climatology
PRISM High-Resolution Spatial Climate Data for the United States: Max/min temp, dewpoint, precipitation
PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model)...
Formats: netCDF | ARC/INFO ASCII GRID Timestep: Climatology,Monthly Domain: North America
Climate Data Guide QuikSCAT image1
QuikSCAT: near sea-surface wind speed and direction
Years of Record: 1999/08 to 2009/10
The QuikSCAT mission was intended to obtain sea-surface wind speed and direction data under all weather and cloud conditions over Earth's oceans. SeaWinds, an active radar scatterometer, is the main instrument on the QuikSCAT satellite. The microwave backscatter measured by SeaWinds is dependent on...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Ricciardulli, Lucrezia
Radiative kernels from climate models
The radiative kernel technique is a method used to quantify radiative feedbacks in response to global warming.  Radiative kernels are commonly calculated for the water vapor, lapse rate, temperature and albedo feedbacks.  Radiative kernels are used to deconstruct the various contributions...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Pendergrass, Angeline
Randolph Glacier Inventory data base of global glacier outlines
The Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) is a global data base of glacier outlines. It is intended for estimates of ice volume and glacier mass at regional and global scales. The data are organized into 19 large regions, with a shapefile provided for each region. The RGI is produced as part of the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: shapefile Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
SCRIPPS O2 ,CO2 and ATO
Years of Record: 1989/01 to 2012/12
"The Scripps O2Program measures changes in atmospheric oxygen levels from air samples collected at stations around the world. This sampling network provides a global and hemispheric perspective on oxygen variability. " Stations include: Alert, NWT, Canada Cold Bay, Alaska Cape Kumukahi, Hawaii...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Daily,Monthly
Sea Ice Concentration data from AMSR-E, AMSR2 & SSMIS, U Bremen and U Hamburg ASI algorithm
Years of Record: 2002/06 to 2011/10
The sea ice data derived from AMSR-E using the ARTIST sea ice (ASI) algorithm offer a factor of 4 finer spatial resolution than most sea ice data sets from passive microwave satellite instruments. ASI is based on the difference of vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures at 89...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | HDF | GeoTIFF Timestep: Daily Domain: NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere, Antarctic, Arctic
Climate Data Guide Image: HADISST ice concentrations
Sea Ice Concentration data from HadISST
Years of Record: 1870/01 to 2017/05
Spanning 1871-present at monthly timesteps, HadISST provides the longest gridded sea ice data available for both the Arctic and Antarctic. It is a 1° x 1° spatially infilled data set that is It is intended as a consistent analyses for input into SST analyses or as boundary conditions for models....
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Antarctic, Arctic, NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere
Climate Data Guide Image: Sea Ice Concentration data; Goddard Bootstrap
Sea Ice Concentration data from NASA Goddard and NSIDC based on Bootstrap algorithm
Years of Record: 1978/10 to 2014/12
Bootstrap sea ice refers to a well-known algorithm used to estimate sea ice concentration from passive microwave brightness temperatures. It can be applied to data from many satellite instruments, such as SMMR, SSMI, and AMSR-E. This page discusses the algorithm itself and the long-term data set ("...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Antarctic, Arctic, NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere
Artic sea ice: NASA Team
Sea Ice Concentration data from NASA Goddard and NSIDC based on NASA Team algorithm
Years of Record: 1978/10 to 2014/12
NASA Team sea ice refers to a well-known algorithm used to estimate sea ice concentration from passive microwave brightness temperatures. This page discusses the algorithm itself and the long-term data set ("NSIDC 0051") produced by scientists at NASA Goddard and distributed by NSIDC. The NASA Team...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Antarctic, Arctic, NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere
Artic sea ice: AMSR-E / NT2
Sea Ice Concentration data from NASA Goddard and NSIDC using AMSR-E and NASA TEAM2 (NT2) algorithm
Years of Record: 2002/06 to 2011/10
The AMSR-E/NASA Team 2 (NT2) data set of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice concentration is available at daily timesteps and 12.5 km (optionally 25km) spatial resolution for 2002-2011. NT2, an extension of the original NASA Team algorithm, uses AMSR-E 89GHz channels to help resolve ambiguity between low...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: HDF-EOS Timestep: Daily Domain: Antarctic, Arctic
Arctic sea ice: SSMI / NT2
Sea ice concentration data from NASA Goddard based on SSMI and NASA Team (NT2) algorithm
Years of Record: 1992/01 to 2008/04
The NASA Team 2 (NT2) / SSMI data set of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice concentration is available at daily timesteps and 25km spatial resolution for 1992-2008. NT2, an extension of the original NASA Team algorithm, uses SSMI 85GHz channels to help resolve ambiguity between low ice concentrations and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: binary Timestep: Daily Domain: Antarctic, Arctic
Arctic sea ice: NOAA OI
Sea Ice Concentration data from NOAA OI
Years of Record: 1854/01 to 2016/12
The NOAA Optimal Interpolation (OI) v2 sea ice data set contains gridded, weekly or monthly resolution sea ice concentration estimates for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. It is intended as a consistent analyses for input into SST analyses (and is the basis for calculating SSTs in sea...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly,Weekly Domain: Antarctic, Arctic, NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere
Artic sea ice: Eumetsat reprocessed.
Sea Ice Concentration data reprocessed from SSMR & SSMI, by Eumetsat
Years of Record: 1978/10 to 2009/10
The Eumetsat Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Applications Facility provides a "reprocessed" data set of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice concentration for 1978-2009. Source data are the SMMR and SSM/I passive microwave brightness temperatures. Three algorithms are utilized: the Technical University of...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Daily Domain: NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere, Antarctic, Arctic
Arctic sea ice: Climate Data Record
Sea Ice Concentration: NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record
Years of Record: 1978/10 to 2015/12
The NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record (CDR) of sea ice concentration is available at 25 x 25 km spatial resolution in daily or monthly timesteps for 1987-2014. It provides a consistent interpretation of sea ice for the satellite record, with the intent of being suitable for studies of climate...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Daily,Monthly Domain: Antarctic, Arctic, NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere
NH Snow Cover Extent, contributed by D. Robinson
Snow Cover Extent (Northern Hemisphere) Climate Data Record, by Rutgers
Years of Record: 1966/10 to 2017/05
The Snow Cover Extent Climate Data Record extends from the late 1960s to present. Historical analyses based on visual inspection have been digitized and combined with modern multi-spectral remote sensing to produce a seamless record on a hemispheric scale. The data are available at weekly and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly,Weekly Domain: North America
See Expert Guidance by Estilow, Thomas W. | See Expert Guidance by Robinson, David
Snow Water Equivalent (AMSR-E)
Years of Record: 2002/06 to 2011/10
The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) distributes daily, weekly, and monthly products which includes snow water equivalent. Note: "On 04 October 2011, the AMSR-E instrument on board the Aqua satellite stopped producing data due to a problem with the rotation of...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: HDF-EOS Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: NH - Northern Hemisphere
SOCAT: Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas
Years of Record: 1970/01 to 2007/12
SOCAT (Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas)  represents an effort to "provide a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC)." The data sets are comprised of observations (ship track) and gridded data.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Climatology,Monthly,Annual Domain: Global
SST Data Sets: Overview & Comparison Table
Years of Record: 1850/01 to 2014/04
Sea surface temperature (SST) data sets are an essential resource for monitoring and understanding climate variability and climate change.  By surface area, SSTs are the dominant (~71%) input into merged global land-ocean surface temperature data products.   Historically, SST measurments...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Timestep: Climatology,Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: AMSR-E: Standard error of 'tos' (SST) for July 2006.
SST (AMSR-E): Sea Surface Temperature from Remote Sensing Systems
Years of Record: 2002/06 to 2010/12
High resolution (0.25°) SSTs were derived from the AMSR-E, a passive microwave radiometer flying on NASA's AQUA satellite. Remote Sensing Systems distributes the data in high spatial and temporal (daily, weekly, monthly) resolutions for both daytime and nighttime averages. Monthly versions are...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Daily,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: SST data: AVHRR Pathfinder v5.2, NOAA NODC
SST data: AVHRR Pathfinder v5.2, NOAA NODC
Years of Record: 1981/01 to 2011/12
"The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 (PFV52) data set was computed using an entirely modernized system, based on SeaDAS and incorporating several key changes over the older Pathfinder V5.0 and V5.1 datasets. PFV52 is viewed as a significant step forward in preparation for the future Version 6 (PFV6)...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Sub-daily Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: COBE SSTs August 2012.
SST data: COBE: Centennial in situ Observation-Based Estimates
Years of Record: 1891/01 to 2017/07
The COBE data set is a spatially complete, interpolated 1°x1° SST product for 1891 to present. It combines SSTs from ICOADS release 2.0, the Japanese Kobe collection, and reports from ships and buoys. Data are gridded using optimal interpolation. As in HadISST, data up to 1941 were bias-adjusted...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: GRIB Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: HadISST v1.1 SST anomalies and sea ice concentration (August 2012).
SST data: HadiSST v1.1
Years of Record: 1870/01 to 2017/05
The Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) is a combination of monthly globally complete fields of SST and sea ice concentration for 1871-present. This page focuses on the SST data; see the separate page for discussion of HadISST sea ice. HadISST uses reduced space...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide Image: HadSST3 (Kennedy et al (2011b)
SST data: HadSST3
Years of Record: 1850/01 to 2014/10
HadSST3 provides monthly SST anomalies on a 5°x5° grid for 1850-present. The anomalies are derived from a 30-year climatology spanning 1961-90.Coverage is global but there is no interpolation; Thus, missing data occur in the final product. The primary input data are from ICOADS release 2.5. Bias...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Climate Data Guide ERSST anomalies contributed by B Huang
SST data: NOAA Extended Reconstruction SSTs, version 3 (ERSSTv3 & 3b)
Years of Record: 1854/01 to 2017/07
The NOAA Extended Reconstruction Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) provides global, spatially complete SST data at a monthly timestep for 1854-present. Version3 is based upon statistical interpolation of the ICOADS release 2.4 data. Version 3 includes satellite AVHRR SST data for 1985 onwards....
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
ERSST v4 timeseries (contributed by B Huang)
SST data: NOAA Extended Reconstruction SSTs, Version 4
Years of Record: 1854/01 to 2016/12
The NOAA Extended Reconstruction Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) provides global, spatially complete SST data at a monthly timestep for 1854-present.  Compared to the previous version, Version 4 uses the more extensive ICOADS Release 2.5 data and revised quality control, bias adjustment, and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
SST data: NOAA High-resolution (0.25x0.25) Blended Analysis of Daily SST and Ice, OISSTv2
Years of Record: 1981/09 to 2017/07
"NOAA’s Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface temperature (OISST, also known as Reynolds’ SST) is a series of global analysis products, including the weekly OISST on a 1° grid to the more recent daily on a ¼° grid. An SST analysis is a spatially gridded product created by interpolating and...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | binary Timestep: Daily Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Banzon, Viva | See Expert Guidance by Reynolds, Richard
Climate Data Guide Image: NOAA OI SST: SST range (C)
SST data: NOAA Optimal Interpolation (OI) SST Analysis, version 2 (OISSTv2) 1x1
Years of Record: 1981/12 to 2017/07
The NOAA Optimal Interpolation SST analysis provides global, spatially complete SSTs on a weekly and monthly basis for 1982-present.
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | ascii | binary Timestep: Climatology,Monthly,Weekly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Banzon, Viva | See Expert Guidance by Reynolds, Richard
Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI)
Years of Record: 1901/01 to 2014/03
The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) is an extension of the widely used Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The SPEI is designed to take into account both precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in determining drought. Thus, unlike the SPI, the SPEI...
Formats: netCDF | ascii Timestep: Monthly,Seasonal,Annual Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.
6-month SPI through January, 2014 capturing drought in California and heavy rains in the Front range of Colorado. Retrieved on 31 January 2014 at http://www.hprcc.unl.edu/maps/current/index.php?action=update_daterange&daterange=6m
Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)
Years of Record: 1949/01 to 2012/12
The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is a widely used index to characterize meteorological drought on a range of timescales. On short timescales, the SPI is closely related to soil moisture, while at longer timescales, the SPI can be related to groundwater and reservoir storage. The SPI can...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Timestep: Monthly
NOCv2.0 Surface Flux and Meteorological Dataset (contributed by E. Kent)
Surface Flux and Meteorological Dataset: National Oceanography Centre (NOC) V2.0
Years of Record: 1973/01 to 2014/12
The National Oceanography Centre  (NOC) Version 2.0 Surface Flux and Meteorological Dataset is a monthly mean gridded dataset of marine surface measurements and derived fluxes constructed using optimal interpolation. Input for the period 1973 to 2006 are ICOADS Release 2.4 ship data and the...
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
Surface Solar Radiation Data Set - Heliosat (SARAH) -Edition 1
Years of Record: 1983/01 to 2013/12
"The Surface Solar Radiation Data Set - Heliosat (SARAH) is a satellite-based climatology of the solar surface irradiance (SIS), the surface direct normalized irradiance (DNI) and the effective cloud albedo (CAL) derived from satellite observations of the visible channels of the MVIRI and SEVIRI...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Africa, Europe, NH - Northern Hemisphere, SH - Southern Hemisphere
Surface Solar Radiation for Europe, Africa and the Atlantic based on MVIRI visible channnels
Years of Record: 1983/01 to 2005/12
The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) provides a regional dataset of surface solar radiation, incoming direct radiation and effective cloud albedo at uniquely high spatial (0.03 deg) and temporal (up to hourly) resolutions for 1983 to 2005. The data set covers...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Africa, Europe, South America, Atlantic Ocean
See Expert Guidance by Trentmann, Jörg
spatial distibution of tide gaugues
Tide gauge sea level data
Years of Record: 1800/01 to 2016/01
The global sea level record from tide gauges is an important indicator of the evolution and impact of global climate change.  Tide gauge data also capture a variety of local and regional phenomena related to decadal climate variability, tides, storm surges, tsunamis, swells, and other coastal...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly,Annual Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Hamlington, Benjamin | See Expert Guidance by Thompson, Phil
TRMM: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
Years of Record: 1998/01 to 2016/10
Note: After 17 years (1997-4/2015)  the TRMM mission came to an end. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) stopped TRMM’s science operations and data collection on April 8, 2015 after the spacecraft depleted its fuel reserves. The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) is the...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF | HDF Timestep: Sub-daily,Daily,Monthly Domain: Tropics
See Expert Guidance by Huffman, George J. | See Expert Guidance by Pendergrass, Angeline
UNH/GRDC: Estimated River Runoff
Combines observed river discharge information with a climate-driven Water Balance Model in order to develop composite runoff fields that are consistent with observed discharges. This combination preserves the accuracy of discharge measurements as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Climatology Domain: Global
Walsh and Chapman Northern Hemisphere Sea Ice
Years of Record: 1870/01 to 2011/12
The Walsh and Chapman Sea Ice Data Set provides a long record of Arctic sea ice concentrations on a monthly basis for 1870-2011. Historical observations were gridded and combined with satellite-derived sea ice concentrations for the recent decades. Mostly climatologies before the 1950s. The Walsh...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: ascii Timestep: Monthly Domain: NH - Northern Hemisphere, Arctic
See Expert Guidance by Chapman, William
Climate Data Guide Image: WASWind
WASWind: Wave and Anemometer-based Sea Surface Wind
Years of Record: 1950/01 to 2011/12
"WASWind (Wave and Anemometer-based Sea Surface Wind) provides a bias-corrected marine surface wind dataset over the global oceans. Variables include scalar, zonal and meridional winds at 10-meter high, and zonal and meridional components of wind stress. WASWind has been constructed from wind...
Main variables and Earth System components:
Formats: netCDF Timestep: Monthly Domain: Global
See Expert Guidance by Tokinaga, Hiroki
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