Sub Surface Temperature https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/ en HadIOD: Met Office-Hadley Centre Integrated Ocean Database https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/hadiod-met-office-hadley-centre-integrated-ocean-database <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--title.html.twig * field--node--title--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--title.html.twig * field--node--title--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">HadIOD: Met Office-Hadley Centre Integrated Ocean Database</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ryanj</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--created.html.twig * field--node--created--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--created.html.twig * field--node--created--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 09/11/2020 - 11:43</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'layout__twocol_section' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x layout--twocol-section.html.twig x layout--twocol-section.html.twig * layout.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--system-breadcrumb-block.html.twig * block--system.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'breadcrumb' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/variables/ocean/sub-surface-temperature">Sub Surface Temperature</a> </li> </ol> </nav> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-primary-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Teaser image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/2022-03/HadIOD.png" width="770" height="416" alt="HadIOD: Met Office-Hadley Centre Integrated Ocean Database" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig * block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-main-content"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-main-content.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Main content</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--climate-dataset--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--default.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-body--default--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--rich-text--default--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--default.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--rich-text.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * field--field-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>HadIOD (Met Office Hadley Centre Integrated Ocean Database) is a global database of <em>in situ</em> ocean temperature and salinity observations, spanning 1850-present on a daily timestep. It is somewhat unique among temperature and salinity datasets in that it combines observations from both surface and sub-surface observing platforms. As such, it is well suited to activities aiming to assimilate climate-quality observations, such as ocean reanalyses. Moreover, the observations are supplemented by metadata that include quality flags, bias corrections, and estimates of measurement uncertainty. HadIOD is updated regularly. However, HadIOD does not fully probe structural error, so users may wish to incorporate additional datasets into their analyses (one option is CORA (Coriolis Ocean database for Reanalysis)). HadIOD is not an interpolated product, and the density of observations varies considerably in space and time.</p> <p> </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-strengths"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Strengths</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-strengths.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-strengths field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Strengths</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Brings together temperature and salinity observations from the surface and subsurface oceans into a single product</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Long record (1850 to present) with regular updates</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Provides observation bias corrections, quantified uncertainties and quality flags</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-limitations"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Limitations</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-limitations.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-limitations field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Limitations</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Data coverage can be sparse; in general, the oceans are better sampled in space (horizontally) and depth as time progresses </p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Less metadata provided than for some observation collections (by design), observation specialists may find other datasets more suitable for observation study </p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Structural uncertainties (the fundamental choices made during dataset construction) are not fully explored; users should consider using other datasets as well.</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-expert-developer-guidance"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Expert Developer Guidance</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-expert-developer-guidance field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Expert Developer Guidance</div> <div class="field__item"><p>The following was contributed by <strong>Chris Atkinson</strong>, UK Met Office, September 2020:</p> <p>HadIOD (Met Office Hadley Centre Integrated Ocean Database) is a database of global historical in situ ocean temperature and salinity observations.  It brings together observations made by surface-only observing platforms (like ships and buoys) and observations from sub-surface ocean profiling platforms (like profiling floats and bathythermographs) and supplements these with metadata including quality flags, bias corrections and estimates of measurement uncertainty.  ‘Integrated’ refers to the merging of data from sources concerned with different components of the observing system (e.g. the surface or subsurface ocean) into a single data store, and the inclusion of appropriate metadata (such as bias corrections and duplicate flags) to enable greater internal consistency.</p> <p>Data coverage is global from 1850-present.  Monthly updates are made on a best endeavours basis with approximately a few months delay.  Data are extracted from the database into <a href="https://cfconventions.org/" target="_blank">CF-compliant</a> NetCDF format for release.  The data and a detailed user guide can be obtained from <a href="https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadiod/" target="_blank">https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadiod/</a>.  Releases are versioned and the current version is HadIOD.1.2.0.0.  Published information (describing HadIOD.1.0.0.0) can be found in Atkinson et al. [2014].</p> <p>The product is targeted at activities wanting to ‘pick up and use’ (ungridded) climate-quality ocean observations e.g. ocean reanalyses.  The focus is on providing the essential information needed for these activities in a convenient format.  It is important that users of ocean data correct for known biases (which can introduce artificial variability in the data) and explore the sensitivity of their applications to observational uncertainties.  By combining this information in a single data set, we allow users to more easily utilize current understanding of observation error in their applications.  Less focus is given to providing the comprehensive observation metadata found in some observation collections (e.g. data provenance) and as such the product may be of lesser interest to observation specialists.  Note that further metadata and IDs linking the observations to their source data collections are available in our own internal database but not currently in the files we release, users can contact us if these are of interest.    </p> <p>Observation errors are modelled as the true value plus a bias associated with the type of platform/instrument, a bias specific to an individual platform/instrument and a random measurement error.  Where possible bias corrections are provided to reduce these biases.  Uncertainty estimates are provided for the residual biases in the corrections and for the random error.  The extent to which this information can be provided for each observation varies by observation type dependent on current knowledge.  With applications such as data assimilation in mind, we try to provide at a minimum some estimate of uncertainty and an overall quality flag for every observation in HadIOD.  Platform/instrument type bias corrections are currently provided for temperature observations made by ships and XBT/MBTs.  The uncertainty in these bias corrections can have complex structures in space and time.  To facilitate exploring this uncertainty, multiple sets of bias corrections are provided that can be used interchangeably.</p> <p>Although HadIOD estimates observation errors, users will need to consider whether other sources of error are present in their application.  For example, sampling errors may arise if an observation does not exactly represent the quantity of interest (e.g. if a point observation is used to represent an area average).  Furthermore, although HadIOD provides estimates of observational uncertainty, these do not capture the structural uncertainty arising from the fundamental choices made in the dataset construction process (e.g. observation error model used, bias correction schemes used, handling of missing metadata, quality control applied, data collections included).  Consequently, the uncertainty in any analysis based on HadIOD may be underestimated and non-climatic features may remain in the data.  Users should consider also using alternative datasets in their analysis to gain a broader understanding of the uncertainties, for example a user might consider blending HadIOD surface data with a different source of profile data or an alternative source of historical SST bias corrections.  Further exploring structural uncertainty is something we may consider for future versions of HadIOD.</p> <p>It is emphasised that HadIOD brings together observations and metadata from a variety of sources and as such relies on the work of many other people.  The sources of observations in the HadIOD.1.2.0.0 public release are: ICOADS.2.5.1 [Woodruff et al., 2011], EN4 [Good et al., 2013] and CMEMS [<a href="http://marine.copernicus.eu/" target="_blank">http://marine.copernicus.eu/</a>] drifting buoy data.  EN4 in turn draws on sources including the World Ocean Database [Boyer et al., 2013; <a href="http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/WOD13/" target="_blank">http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/WOD13/</a>], Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Project [<a href="http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/GTSPP/" target="_blank">http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/GTSPP/</a>] and the Argo project [<a href="http://www.argo.net" target="_blank">http://www.argo.net</a>]. </p> <p>Several alternative observation datasets to HadIOD are available, including those used by HadIOD.  The objectives and features of each dataset vary.  HadIOD is intended to complement existing data collections and its key strengths and limitations are given below.  A possible alternative to the HadIOD dataset is CORA [<a href="http://www.coriolis.eu.org/Data-Products/Products/CORA" target="_blank">http://www.coriolis.eu.org/Data-Products/Products/CORA</a>] which also provides surface and subsurface temperature and salinity observations in a single dataset and is aimed at similar users.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Key Strengths:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Blending of temperature and salinity observations from the surface and subsurface ocean in a single product. </li> <li>Long record (1850 to present) with regular updates.</li> <li>Observation bias corrections, uncertainty estimates and quality flags.</li> <li>Data release targeted at users wanting to just ‘pick up and use’ climate-quality ocean observations appropriately.</li> <li>Detailed user guide (including guidance on working with bias corrections and measurement uncertainties).</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Key Limitations:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Data coverage can be sparse; in general, the oceans are better sampled in space (horizontally) and depth as time progresses (summary plots are available in the user guide).</li> <li>Improved or new versions of some underpinning data/metadata sources are now available (e.g. ICOADS 3.0, latest ship/XBT/MBT bias corrections).  Surface salinity content could be improved by adding other sources.  These will be included in future releases.</li> <li>Less metadata provided than for some observation collections (by design), observation specialists may find other datasets more suitable for observation study (further metadata and IDs linking the observations to their source collections are available in our database but not in the files we currently release, users can contact us if this is of interest).</li> <li>Structural uncertainties (the fundamental choices made during dataset construction) are not fully explored, users should consider using other datasets as well.</li> </ul> <p> </p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </main> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> Fri, 11 Sep 2020 17:43:00 +0000 ryanj 1169 at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu EN4 subsurface temperature and salinity for the global oceans https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/en4-subsurface-temperature-and-salinity-global-oceans <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--title.html.twig * field--node--title--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--title.html.twig * field--node--title--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">EN4 subsurface temperature and salinity for the global oceans</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ryanj</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--created.html.twig * field--node--created--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--created.html.twig * field--node--created--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 12/16/2019 - 14:57</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'layout__twocol_section' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x layout--twocol-section.html.twig x layout--twocol-section.html.twig * layout.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--system-breadcrumb-block.html.twig * block--system.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'breadcrumb' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/variables/ocean/sub-surface-temperature">Sub Surface Temperature</a> </li> </ol> </nav> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-primary-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Teaser image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/2022-03/EN4-snippet.png" width="560" height="326" alt="EN4 subsurface temperature and salinity for the global oceans" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig * block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-main-content"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-main-content.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Main content</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--climate-dataset--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--default.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-body--default--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--rich-text--default--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--default.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--rich-text.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * field--field-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>EN4 is a subsurface temperature and salinity dataset for the global oceans, spanning 1900 to present at a monthly timestep. It includes two types of data products: (1) a database of quality-controled <em>in situ</em> profiles and (2) a spatially complete analyses at 1 by 1 degree horizontal resolution and 42 depth levels for 83S to 90N. Input data include Argo (Argo, 2000), ASBO (Arctic Synoptic Basinwide Oceanography), GTSPP (Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Program) and WOD13 (World Ocean Database). The profiles include quality control flags while the analyses include observation weighting and standard error information. EN4 is used for monitoring ocean heat content and thermostreric sea level, initializing models and forecasts, and satellite data validation, among other applications. Due to the sparseness of ocean observations in some regions and time periods, studies of trends and variability should be approached with caution. Where observations are lacking, EN4 relaxes to a 1970-2000 climatology. Users should check the observation weights when doing such analyses.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-strengths"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Strengths</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-strengths.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-strengths field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Strengths</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Globally extensive compilation of temperature and salinity data extending back to 1900, offered in 2 formats: In-situ profiles and spatially complete analysis fields</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Updated monthly, enabling it to be used for model/forecast initialization or climate monitoring</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Quality and uncertainty information provided, including observation weights, quality control flags, and analysis standard error</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-limitations"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Limitations</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-limitations.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-limitations field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Limitations</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Relaxes to climatology in data-sparse regions. As such, EN4 analyses are not suitable for studies of long-term trends or low frequency variability across data-sparse time periods or areas</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>In some areas of high variability, standard errors increase with increasing observation numbers and therefore should be treated with caution </p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-expert-developer-guidance"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Expert Developer Guidance</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-expert-developer-guidance field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Expert Developer Guidance</div> <div class="field__item"><p>The following was contributed by <strong>Rachel Killick</strong>, August, 2019:</p> <p>EN4.2.1 is the UK Met Office Hadley Centre’s subsurface temperature and salinity data set. It is freely available for research and private use from <a href="https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/en4/" target="_blank">https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/en4/</a>. The data set is built using four input sources: Argo (Argo, 2000), ASBO (Arctic Synoptic Basinwide Oceanography), GTSPP (Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Program) and WOD13 (World Ocean Database). EN4 is updated on a monthly basis (with approximately a half-month lag) and runs from 1900 to the present day. The data set is fully reprocessed approximately once a year to allow a fresh download of all the source data and the implementation of any desired changes e.g. implementation of new code or bug fixes. When a full reprocessing takes place the version number will be incremented. Monthly updates include the latest data from the two monthly-updating input sources, Argo and GTSPP; no code changes are implemented for monthly updates and only the three most recent months will be updated.</p> <p>The monthly updating nature of EN4 would be considered one of its key strengths, enabling it to be used for model/ forecast initialisation and regular monitoring. Another key strength is the ensemble nature of this data set. Two oceanographic instruments eXpendable BathyThermographs (XBTs) and Mechanical BathyThermographs (MBTs) are known to exhibit biases in their recorded measurements. These biases can be corrected (lessened, although likely never removed entirely) by the implementation of bias correction schemes. EN4 implements two such bias correction schemes (Levitus et al., 2009 and the most up to date version of Gouretski and Reseghetti, 2010). Two more correction schemes (Cowley et al., 2013 and an update of Cheng et al., 2014) are planned to be implemented by the end of 2019.</p> <p>A further strength is the availability of the data in two different formats, both served as monthly downloadable netCDF files. The first is the profile file format: this consists of individual profiles in space and time grouped into a global, monthly downloadable file. These profiles are all quality controlled using the automatic procedures detailed in Good et al., 2013. Second, profiles that pass quality control are combined with climatology and an objective analysis scheme to provide spatially-complete objective analyses for each month of the data set. These analyses are provided at a resolution of 1 by 1 degree from 83S to 90N and across the complete range of longitudes. The reason for the non 90 degree southern cut-off is the presence of land-only below this latitude, by not including these latitudes the file storage space can be reduced.</p> <p>Multiple variables are served in the profile format files including in-situ and potential temperature and practical salinity. The quality control flags can be accessed at varying degrees of resolution according to whether the user wants a single flag for the whole profile, a ‘good’ or ‘bad’ flag for each level or a break-down (done using binary formatting) of which tests were failed at each level of the profile. Given that the quality control tests are automatic, with no visual inspection of profiles, we do not claim to have flagged every possible bad value and not flagged any good values. Uncertainties are currently not provided with the profile data (other than through the ensemble nature of providing more than one bathythermograph correction). However, we are currently investigating whether making use of the uncertainties provided by the IQuOD initiative would be of benefit to users (<a href="http://www.iquod.org/" target="_blank">http://www.iquod.org/</a>). Where it is known, the type of instrument which recorded the profile is provided. Profiles with more than 400 recorded depths are thinned before being provided in EN4, this thinning aims to retain the maximum amount of information possible without providing large files which are overly cumbersome. Profiles are thinned to have information approximately every metre down to 100m, then every 10m down to 1500m and every 50m after that; the lower levels are thinned first and as soon as 400 or fewer levels are achieved thinning stops being implemented.</p> <p>The analysis files serve potential temperature and practical salinity at one degree by one degree spatial resolution and 42 irregularly spaced depth levels (increasing in separation as depth increases). These too are provided from 1900, but, in the absence of observations will relax back to a 1971-2000 climatology. This relaxation to climatology means that we do not recommend the EN4 analyses be used for long term trend analysis in data sparse time periods or areas. Alongside the ocean variables in the EN4 analyses there are also observation_weight analyses. These are provided on the same grid and provide information on how much a specific grid box in a specific month and year have been influenced by observations and how much by climatology. High values of the observation_weight imply good observational input, low values imply little observational input. The influence of an observation persists in time and is spread in space and therefore a high value of observation_weight does not always mean an observation at that specific time and location, but does suggest an observation in the spatial/ temporal vicinity of it. The analyses are provided with uncertainty estimates and these provide the analysis error standard deviations of the potential temperature or salinity analyses. It is known that in some areas of high variability these errors increase with increasing observation numbers and therefore should be treated with caution here.</p> <div> <p>A recent user survey has yielded information on the variety of applications for which EN4 is used. These range from ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level monitoring, model and satellite data validation and model and forecast initialisation as well as more bespoke uses such as tracking certain species of animals according to water temperature preferences.</p> <p>EN4 is also used as the subsurface input to the, soon to be available, Hadley Centre Integrated Ocean Database (HadIOD, Atkinson et al., 2014). HadIOD combines subsurface data from EN4 and surface data primarily from ICOADS to provide an integrated surface and subsurface database ideal for ingestion into reanalyses and multiple other uses. HadIOD provides data with the same XBT and MBT bias corrections as EN4 as well as the Cowley et al., 2013 and the Gouretski 2012 corrections for XBTs. Bias corrections for surface data are also provided. Bias is split into macro-bias, at the level of the platform (e.g. XBT, MBT, bucket) and micro-bias, at the individual ship or float level. All measurements in HadIOD are quality controlled and have a unique identifier, uncertainty estimates are provided where possible.</p> <p>Two of EN4’s contemporaries in the data set world include the CMEMS CORA data set (similar monthly profile and analysis files, but with manual QC and six monthly updates) and the World Ocean Database (profile files from pre-1900 to the present updated on a quarterly basis). These data sets should be seen as complementary and not in competition.</p> <p>There do not appear to be repeated mistakes made when users are dealing with EN4 data, however, an FAQ page is provided to seek to answer the most common queries (<a href="https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/en4/FAQ.html" target="_blank">https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/en4/FAQ.html</a>). Other queries can be asked using the ‘Contact Us’ link on the web pages. The most common query received relates to whether smaller input data sets are included in EN4, this can normally be answered by seeing whether the data set of interest is in the GTSPP, WOD or ASBO data we take, if they are then they should also be in EN4.##</p> <p> </p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </main> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> Mon, 16 Dec 2019 21:57:00 +0000 ryanj 1164 at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu Ocean temperature analysis and heat content estimate from Institute of Atmospheric Physics https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/ocean-temperature-analysis-and-heat-content-estimate-institute-atmospheric-physics <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--title.html.twig * field--node--title--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--title.html.twig * field--node--title--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Ocean temperature analysis and heat content estimate from Institute of Atmospheric Physics</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ryanj</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--created.html.twig * field--node--created--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--created.html.twig * field--node--created--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 05/08/2017 - 12:06</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'layout__twocol_section' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x layout--twocol-section.html.twig x layout--twocol-section.html.twig * layout.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--system-breadcrumb-block.html.twig * block--system.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'breadcrumb' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/variables/ocean/sub-surface-temperature">Sub Surface Temperature</a> </li> </ol> </nav> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-primary-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Teaser image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/2022-03/Ocean-temperature-analysis.png" width="4506" height="3841" alt="Ocean temperature analysis and heat content estimate from Institute of Atmospheric Physics" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig * block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-main-content"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-main-content.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Main content</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--climate-dataset--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--default.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-body--default--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--rich-text--default--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--default.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--rich-text.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * field--field-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) ocean temperature analysis features global coverage of the oceans, at 1° x1° horizontal resolution on 41 vertical levels from 1-2000m, and monthly resolution from 1940 to present.  As such, it is aimed at studies of climate variability and change, from large regional to global scales, on timescales of months to decades.  The primary input data are bias-corrected (for depth error, temperature error and probe type) XBT measurements from the World Ocean Database.  Model simulations were used to guide the mapping from point measurements to the grid, while sampling error was estimated by sub-sampling the ARGO data at the locations of the earlier observations.  The dataset has been used to estimate ocean heat content change since 1940, which compares favorably with the top-of-atmosphere radiative imbalance since 1985.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-strengths"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Strengths</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-strengths.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-strengths field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Strengths</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Global, gridded dataset of ocean subsurface temperature</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Uses a community recommended XBT bias correction approach</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Error estimates provided</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-limitations"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Limitations</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-limitations.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-limitations field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Limitations</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Does not resolve small-scale ocean features such as eddies</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Prior to the ARGO era, sampling uncertainty is of similar magnitude to interannual variability</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Data from 1940-1955 should be used with caution (large uncertainty, and the reconstruction is shifted to CMIP5 model ensemble mean)</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-expert-developer-guidance"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Expert Developer Guidance</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-expert-developer-guidance field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Expert Developer Guidance</div> <div class="field__item"><p>The following was contributed by Dr. Lijing Cheng, Institute of Atmospheric Physics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, May, 2017:</p> <p>A gridded ocean temperature dataset with complete global ocean coverage is a highly valuable resource for the understanding of climate change and climate variability. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) provides a new objective analysis of historical ocean subsurface temperature since 1940 for the upper 2000m through several innovative steps. The first was to use an updated set of past observations that had been newly corrected for biases (e.g., in XBTs). The XBT bias was corrected by CH14 scheme (Cheng et al. 2014), which is recommended by the XBT community (Cheng et al. 2016). The second was to use co-variability between values at different places in the ocean and background information from a number of climate models that included a comprehensive ocean model (Cheng and Zhu, 2016; Cheng et al. 2017). The third was to extend the influence of each observation over larger areas, recognizing the relative homogeneity of the vast open expanses of the southern oceans. Then the observations were also used to provide finer scale detail. Finally, the new analysis was carefully evaluated by using the knowledge of recent well-observed ocean states, but subsampled using the sparse distribution of observations in the more distant past to show that the method produces unbiased historical reconstruction (Cheng et al. 2017). The method works well back to the late 1950s but prior to then there are too few observations to make reliable ocean state estimates.</p> <p>Ocean heat content (OHC) change is a fundamental indicator of global warming, since the ocean stores more than 90% of the earth’s energy increase (von Schuckmann et al. 2016). Accurate assessment of OHC change is a key task and a key challenge in the climate community (Cheng et al. 2015; Boyer et al. 2016). Based on the IAP ocean temperature analysis, we provide a new OHC estimate with an unbiased mean sampling error. The reconstructed OHC variability on decadal and multi-decadal timescales (signal) can be reliably distinguished from sampling error (noise) with signal-to-noise ratios larger than 3. The temperature variation on inter-annual scale is smaller (or comparable, S/N ratio ~ 1) than the noise before Argo era, due to insufficient sampling. The inferred integrated EEI is greater than reported in previous assessments, but consistent with a reconstruction of the radiative imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere since 1985.</p> <p>What are the key differences in methods used to create IAP data and its peer datasets (for example: WOA by NCEI, EN4 by Hadley Center, Ishii data by JMA)? Here we briefly discuss two major techniques used to create these datasets including XBT bias correction and mapping method. There are major error sources in OHC calculation as discussed in Boyer et al. 2016. We will also highlight the “subsample test” to quantify the accuracy of the reconstruction, which was not done by other peer datasets except IAP data.</p> <p><strong>(1). Correction to XBT bias.</strong> XBT bias can significantly impact the OHC estimates, especially for decadal and long-term changes. IAP data corrects XBT bias by using the Cheng et al. 2014 method (CH14), which is a recommended method by XBT community. CH14 corrects both depth error and pure temperature error, and also takes accounts of the influence of ocean temperature, manufacturer and probe type. WOA uses the Levitus et al. 2009 (L09) scheme, which corrects only XBT temperatures; EN4 provides several different versions of products by using L09 and Gouretski &amp; Reseghetti 2010 (GR10) respectively. GR10 provides correction to both depth error and temperature error for the main XBT probe types. Ishii data used the Ishii and Kimoto (2009) method, which attributes XBT bias only to depth error.</p> <p><strong>(2). Mapping method. </strong>The mapping method defines how data gaps are filled and the reconstructed field is smoothed. The covariance defines the correlations of temperature changes among different grid boxes, which is vital in an objective analysis. Previous products (WOA, EN4 and Ishii) have parameterized the background error correlation between two points as a function which decays in an exponential-like manner with the distance separating the points. This parameterized correlation is always isotropic, however, the covariance should be flow-dependent in the real ocean. The over-simplified covariance is one major error source in ocean temperature reconstructions. The IAP product uses an Ensemble Optimum Interpolation method combined with covariance from CMIP5 multi-model simulations. The models have the capability to simulate the general ocean circulation and could provide a better representation of the covariance. Using the ensemble strategy effectively reduces the impact of model bias in each single model, therefore, the IAP mapping technique provides a best guess on the covariance based on a combination of climate model simulations.</p> <p>In addition to mapping, a localization strategy is always applied due to the inaccuracy of the remote covariance, which assumes that only data within a spatial area can be used during the analysis of a grid cell. The size of the area is defined by the influencing radius. WOA/Ishii/EN4 method uses a radius less than 900km. Instead IAP uses 20 degrees for an influencing radius within 0-700m (25 degrees for 700-2000m). The large fractional coverage helps ensure that a near-complete global reconstruction can be reached, so the technique will not bias the reconstructed field toward the first-guess field in data sparse regions.</p> <p><strong>(3). Subsample test to evaluate the analysis.</strong> Quantification of the reliability of the reconstruction is an important step for a product. A subsample test, in which subsets of data in the data-rich Argo era are co-located with locations of earlier ocean observations, is performed to quantify the sampling error. The subsample test is defined as the difference between the reconstructed and “truth fields”. The truth field is taken to be a set of the gridded averaged temperature anomalies during the Argo era. Each truth field is subsampled according to the locations of historical observations and mapped to get the reconstructed fields. The IAP product is evaluated by this subsample test, showing an unbiased mean sampling error and with ocean temperature (or OHC) variability on decadal and multi-decadal timescales that can be reliably distinguished from sampling error. In addition, temperature (or OHC) changes in six major ocean basins are reliably reconstructed on decadal timescales. However, the inter-annual variations in the pre-Argo era are of comparable magnitude to sampling errors, but the current Argo system begins to allow for a resolution of inter-annual temperature (or OHC) variability. A similar subsample test is highly recommended in the future in the evaluation of an ocean analysis.##</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </main> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> Mon, 08 May 2017 18:06:00 +0000 ryanj 1125 at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu CMCC Global Ocean Reanalysis System (C-GLORS) https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/cmcc-global-ocean-reanalysis-system-c-glors <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--title.html.twig * field--node--title--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--title.html.twig * field--node--title--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">CMCC Global Ocean Reanalysis System (C-GLORS)</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ryanj</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--created.html.twig * field--node--created--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--created.html.twig * field--node--created--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 09/04/2014 - 14:56</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'layout__twocol_section' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x layout--twocol-section.html.twig x layout--twocol-section.html.twig * layout.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--system-breadcrumb-block.html.twig * block--system.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'breadcrumb' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/variables/ocean/sub-surface-temperature">Sub Surface Temperature</a> </li> </ol> </nav> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-primary-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Teaser image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/2022-03/hctrend.png" width="960" height="624" alt="CMCC Global Ocean Reanalysis System (C-GLORS)" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig * block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-main-content"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-main-content.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Main content</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--climate-dataset--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--default.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-body--default--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--rich-text--default--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--default.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--rich-text.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * field--field-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>"The CMCC Global Ocean Physical Reanalysis System (C-GLORS) is used  to simulate the state of the ocean in the last decades. It consists of a variational data assimilation system (OceanVar), capable of assimilating all in-situ observations along with altimetry data, and a forecast step performed by the ocean model NEMO coupled with the LIM2 sea-ice model."</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-strengths"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Strengths</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-strengths.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-strengths field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Strengths</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Data are available for a large number of ocean parameters</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>An extensive validation has been conducted and is freely available</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>The reanalysis is performed at high resolution (1/4 degree) and spans the last 30 years</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-limitations"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Limitations</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-limitations.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-limitations field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Limitations</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Quality may be discontinuos and depend on observation coverage</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Uncertainty estimates are simply derived through verification skill scores</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Net surface heat flux seems underestimated at high latitudes</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-expert-developer-guidance"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Expert Developer Guidance</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-expert-developer-guidance field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Expert Developer Guidance</div> <div class="field__item"><p>The following was contributed by <strong>Dr. Andrea Storto</strong> (CMCC, Italy), October, 2014:</p> <p>"Summary: The CMCC Global Ocean Physical Reanalysis System (C-GLORS) is used at CMCC to simulate the state of the ocean in the last decades. It consists of a variational data assimilation system (OceanVar), capable of assimilating all in-situ observations along with altimetry data, and a forecast step performed by the ocean model NEMO coupled with the LIM2 sea-ice model.</p> <p>Key Strengths:</p> <p>-Data dissemination is provided for a very large number of ocean parameters</p> <p>-An extensive validation has been conducted and is freely available, confirming the good quality of the dataset</p> <p>-The reanalysis is performed at high resolution (1/4 degree) and spans the last 30 years, covering the entire era of meteorological satellites</p> <p> </p> <p>Key Limitations:</p> <p>-Quality may be discontinuos and depend on observation coverage</p> <p>-Uncertainty estimates are simply derived through verification skill scores</p> <p>-Net surface heat flux seems underestimated at high latitudes</p> <p> </p> <p>C-GLORS provides a 3D picture of the state of the ocean at 1/4 degree resolution for the meteorological satellite era (1982-2012).</p> <p>It can be used for a wide range of applications, from climate monitoring to ocean dynamics studies, to models validation and comparisons, and downstream application (e.g. fisheries, biogeochemistry, etc.).</p> <p>While climate signals are generally well reproduced, users should pay attention to the period where changes in observing system are present (mostly when altimetric missions start, October 1992, or when Argo data come in the system, 2001-2004)."##</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </main> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> Thu, 04 Sep 2014 20:56:00 +0000 ryanj 1035 at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu Argo Ocean Temperature and Salinity Profiles https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/argo-ocean-temperature-and-salinity-profiles <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--title.html.twig * field--node--title--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--title.html.twig * field--node--title--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Argo Ocean Temperature and Salinity Profiles </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ryanj</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--created.html.twig * field--node--created--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--created.html.twig * field--node--created--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 01/31/2014 - 11:12</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'layout__twocol_section' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x layout--twocol-section.html.twig x layout--twocol-section.html.twig * layout.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--system-breadcrumb-block.html.twig * block--system.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'breadcrumb' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/variables/ocean/sub-surface-temperature">Sub Surface Temperature</a> </li> </ol> </nav> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-primary-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Teaser image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/2022-03/ARGOstatusbig.gif" width="2363" height="1092" alt="Argo Ocean Temperature and Salinity Profiles " loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig * block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-main-content"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-main-content.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Main content</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--climate-dataset--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--default.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-body--default--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--rich-text--default--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--default.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--rich-text.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * field--field-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Argo is an array of over 3600 profiling floats distributed almost uniformly across the global oceans. First deployed in 2000, Argo floats provide temperature and salinity profiles from the surface to a depth of 2000m. The array has approximately 1 float for every 3 degrees of latitude and longitude, providing a new profile once every 10 days. The array is sparser in the Arctic and Southern Oceans. 'Real-time' data are available within 24 hours of collection, while 'delayed-mode', bias-corrected data are available within a year of collection. On the whole, Argo provides one of the most accurate and comprehensive means of observing global ocean temperature and salinity changes. Several institutions provide gridded fields based on Argo data.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-strengths"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Strengths</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-strengths.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-strengths field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Strengths</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Accurate and comprehensive measurements of temperature and salinity, enabling a systematic assessment of the physical state of the upper ocean</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Wide and uniform spatial distribution</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-limitations"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Limitations</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-limitations.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-limitations field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Limitations</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Incapable of resolving small-scale features such as ocean eddies</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Does not sample the deep ocean, missing a critical region where heat is stored</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Limited coverage at high latitudes, especially in seasonally ice-covered regions</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-expert-user-guidance"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Expert User Guidance</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-user-guidance---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-user-guidance--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-user-guidance--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-expert-user-guidance field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Expert User Guidance</div> <div class="field__item"><p> The following was contributed by <strong>Josh Willis</strong>, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, January, 2014:</p> <p>The Argo array of profiling floats is a globally distributed network of autonomous, profiling robots that observe temperature and salinity over the top 2000 m (roughly the top half) of the oceans.  They are distributed globally, with approximately 1 float every 3 degrees of latitude and longitude, providing a new profile once every 10 days.</p> <p> The Argo array provides the most accurate and comprehensive means of observing global temperature and salinity change in the world’s oceans. Although salinity sensors in the Argo floats can be subject to biases that vary slowly over the course of months and years, the Argo data system is carefully constructed so data centers now provide corrected salinities, where these drifts are estimated and corrected for.  These corrected data are referred to as delayed-mode data and are available within one year of collection of any individual profile.  Data that have not had the salinity correction are referred to as real-time data, and are available within 24 hours of collection.  In practice, these data are accurate enough for many scientific and operational purposes.</p> <p> Data from the Argo array now provide the most accurate, ongoing observations of global ocean heat uptake, which is a direct result of human-caused climate change. Nevertheless, they do have some limitations. The Argo floats do not sample at very fine resolution in the ocean and are note capable of resolving small features such as ocean eddies.  At present, they also do not sample the deep ocean, and in some (usually high-latitude) regions it has been suggested that human-caused warming of the ocean penetrates all the way to the sea floor.  Finally, Argo provides only a few observations in regions with seasonal sea ice.  Specially designed floats have been deployed in a few regions that can avoid seasonal sea ice, but the Arctic Ocean and many parts of the Southern Ocean are not sampled by Argo.  Finally, because most Argo floats profile to a depth of 2000 m, they cannot sample the shallow marginal seas that are important for many coastal areas.</p> <p>It is often suggested that because Argo floats drift freely in the oceans, they do not provide good uniform sampling. However, there is very little evidence for floats clumping, or experiencing significant divergence anywhere in the global oceans except for the equatorial Pacific. Most floats spend about 9 days drifting at 1000 m depth, and 1 day at the surface transmitting data.  In most regions, this duty cycle results in a rather random pattern of float trajectory.  In the Equatorial Pacific, however, the strong surface divergence tends to push floats off the equator making it difficult to sample.  In recent years, floats that spend at little as 1 hour at the surface have been used to populate this region and the resulting sampling along the equator has been much improved.##</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </main> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> Fri, 31 Jan 2014 18:12:00 +0000 ryanj 1005 at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/world-ocean-atlas-2013-woa13 <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--title.html.twig * field--node--title--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--title.html.twig * field--node--title--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13)</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ryanj</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--created.html.twig * field--node--created--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--created.html.twig * field--node--created--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 12/19/2013 - 14:49</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'layout__twocol_section' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x layout--twocol-section.html.twig x layout--twocol-section.html.twig * layout.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--system-breadcrumb-block.html.twig * block--system.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'breadcrumb' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/variables/ocean/sub-surface-temperature">Sub Surface Temperature</a> </li> </ol> </nav> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-primary-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Teaser image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/2022-03/F5-NWA-sal_0.png" width="450" height="492" alt="World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13)" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig * block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-main-content"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-main-content.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Main content</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--climate-dataset--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--default.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-body--default--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--rich-text--default--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--default.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--rich-text.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * field--field-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The World Ocean Atlas (WOA) is a set of climatological mean, gridded fields of oceanographic variables based on in-situ measurements from a wide variety of sources.  Global, decadal averages of temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients are provided at monthly, seasonal and annual averaging periods on 102 standard depth levels from 0 to 5500m, and at 0.25° (temperature, salinity) and 1 ° (all variables) horizontal resolutions.   These fields are widely used for ocean model initialization and validation, climate studies, and operational forecasting.  Regional climatologies of temperature and salinity are available at 1/10 ° for select regions of the global ocean with good data coverage.  The WOA is often referred to simply as "Levitus" or the "Levitus Climatology" after its pioneering creator, Sydney Levitus.  The WOA generally represents large-scale features of the global ocean quite well but coverage can be inadequate for meaningful gradient and trend calculations in some regions and depths.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-strengths"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Strengths</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-strengths.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-strengths field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Strengths</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Global coverage of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients gridded at various horizontal resolutions (1 degree to 1/4 degree) and 102 depth levels</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Based on direct, in-situ measurements. No satellite data or model used</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Useful as initial or boundary conditions for models, studies of climate variability and change, or validation of satellite retrievals</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-limitations"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Limitations</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-limitations.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-limitations field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Limitations</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Fields are based on limited data in some regions such as the Southern Ocean and at deeper levels</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Limited observations in some regions and depths could render some computations, such as horizontal gradients, meaningless</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Inconsistent sampling in a given region through time could contribute to spurious features in the temporal record </p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-expert-user-guidance"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Expert User Guidance</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-user-guidance---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-user-guidance--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-user-guidance--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-expert-user-guidance.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-expert-user-guidance field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Expert User Guidance</div> <div class="field__item"><p> </p> <p> </p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-expert-developer-guidance"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Expert Developer Guidance</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-expert-developer-guidance field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Expert Developer Guidance</div> <div class="field__item"><p>The following was contributed by <strong>Alexey Mishonov</strong>, October, 2016:</p> <p>The World Ocean Atlas (WOA) series consists of long-term climatological mean and objectively analyzed fields of oceanographic variables derived from <em>in situ </em>profile data arranged at discrete depths and time intervals (annual, seasonal, monthly). The fields can be used in a wide spectrum of oceanographic applications (e.g., initial and/or boundary conditions for models, base mean fields for climate change studies, quality control tools for <em>in situ</em> measurements, etc.). The most recent version of the World Ocean Atlas (WOA13, published in 2013) includes mean and objectively analyzed fields for six decades (1955-64, 1965-74, 1975-84, 1985-94, 1995-2004, and 2005-2012) for temperature and salinity with one- and quarter-degree resolution as well as a six decadal averaged field (termed ‘decav’, 1955-2012). Additionally, all-data fields of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate with one-degree resolution are also included in the release of WOA13. The ‘decav’ and individual decadal fields provide a unique oceanographic foundation for the exploration of climate variability over the second half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century and the beginning of the 21<sup>st</sup> century on a global scale. The higher resolution quarter-degree fields of decadal temperature and salinity offer a more detailed view of the World Ocean over the time span of almost 60 years. WOA13 contains 102 depth levels between the surface and 5500 m depth, which provides a far better approximation of the mean and analyzed fields when compared to the 33 depth levels in all earlier editions of WOA. Based on WOA, several Regional Climatologies were developed for different regions of the World Ocean where data coverage is sufficient, providing even more detailed temperature and salinity fields. Data and analyses with higher vertical resolution than was previously available are proved to be very useful for better documenting of the ocean variability, including improving diagnostics, understanding, and modeling of the physics of the global ocean.</p> <p>The oceanographic analyses described by the WOA13 atlas series expands on earlier works (<em>e.g.,</em> World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09), World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05), World Ocean Atlas 2001 (WOA01), World Ocean Atlas 1998 (WOA98), World Ocean Atlas 1994 (WOA94), and Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean (Levitus, 1982)). Previously published oceanographic objective analyses have proven to be highly useful for the oceanographic, climate research, geophysical, and operational environmental forecasting communities. Some of the usages of these data can be in the form of "sea truth" for validation of satellite measurements, for computation of nutrient fluxes by Ekman transport, and for planning oceanographic expeditions among others (Locarnini et al., 2013). </p> <p>The WOA13 represents the ocean state variables of temperature and salinity with more detail and less uncertainty than previous iterations of the World Ocean Atlas series due to large increases in data holdings and better temporal and spatial coverage coupled with refined analysis and quality control techniques (see Figure 1). WOA13 expanded on previous releases with increased vertical resolution (3x in the upper ocean, 2x below 1500 m.), increased spatial resolution (16x), and the release of the decadal climatologies, which were used to calculate the final 1955-2012 long-term climatological mean fields. In order to further improve the initial release of WOA13, an update, WOA13 version 2 (WOA13v2) has been prepared, which addresses some methodology and quality control concerns surfaced since the initial release of WOA13. Those augments has some effect on the resultant fields from local to global. (Boyer <em>et al</em>., 2015). </p> <p>Access to WOA13v2 is provided via <a href="https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/woa13/" target="_blank">https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/woa13/</a>.</p> <p> </p> <p>A few regions of the World Ocean have significantly better data coverage historically than others, thus opening a possibility to generate regional ocean climatologies on even finer than quarter-degree spatial grids. Therefore, in 2011 the National Oceanographic Data Center (now part of National Centers for Environmental Information) began development of the Regional Climatology Atlases for such regions by generating fields of temperature and salinity on one-, quarter-, and tenths-degree spatial resolution grids with more detailed local quality control procedures than those applied to the World Ocean in all WOA editions. Currently, there are six Regional Climatology (RC) Atlases that have been created and published:</p> <ul> <li>Gulf of Mexico RC - To provide physical oceanography foundation for assessment of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) ocean climate state, a regional climatology of the GoM was compiled as a set of mean fields at one-degree, quarter-degree, and tenth-degree resolution for temperature, salinity, oxygen and other essential oceanographic parameters from the World Ocean Database. The GoM regional climatology serves as physical oceanography foundation for NOAA Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas.</li> <li>East Asian Seas RC - is a set of objectively analyzed climatological fields of temperature and salinity at standard depth levels in the East Asian Marginal Seas. These fields were calculated for annual, seasonal, and monthly time periods on one-degree, quarter-degree, and tenth-degree latitude-longitude grids and are based on 1.2 million temperature profiles and 0.6 million salinity profiles.</li> <li>Arctic RC - The Arctic Ocean is an area of intense activity both for environmental and commercial interests. Climate change has disproportionally affected this region with rising ocean temperatures and continued loss of summer sea ice extent. Oil and mineral exploration and exploitation are becoming increasable common in the Arctic. To facilitate study of the region, a new set of high-resolution long-term mean surface/subsurface temperature and salinity fields has been developed. These mean fields incorporate a great deal of data not previously available.</li> <li>Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas (GINS) RC - the gateways for water exchange between the North Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic, which plays a key role in the entire high-latitudinal ocean climate formation and change. The magnitude of fisheries, oil and other material resources and climatic importance of GINS has spurred intensive observation and research programs in the region. To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the GINS a new set of high-resolution quality-controlled long-term annual, seasonal and monthly mean temperature and salinity fields on different depth levels has been developed.</li> <li>Northwest Atlantic RC – The Northwest Atlantic (NWA) plays a crucial role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. The Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current System are the key elements of northward heat transport and Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. The NWA is a resource-rich coastal zone with abundant fisheries and other material resources. Its economic significance and climatic importance called forth intensive observational and research programs spanning over many decades. To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the NWA, a new set of high-resolution quality-controlled long-term annual, seasonal and monthly mean temperature and salinity fields on different depth levels has been developed. The NWA RC is the most detailed regional climatology with monthly fields of temperature and salinity for six decades since 1955 on three spatial grids with one-, quarter and one-tenth of the degree resolutions on 102 levels of depths (see Figures below).</li> <li>Northern North Pacific RC - The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a critical role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. The NNP is a resource-reach coastal zone with abundant fisheries and other material resources. To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the NNP, NCEI Regional Climatology Team developed a new set of high-resolution quality-controlled long-term annual, seasonal and monthly mean temperature and salinity fields on different depth levels. </li> </ul> <p>Access to Regional Climatology Atlases is provided via <a href="https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/regional_climate/" target="_blank">https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/regional_climate/</a>.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>REFERENCES:</strong></p> <p><strong>Pioneering paper:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Levitus, S., Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean, NOAA/ERL GFDL. Professional Paper 13, Princeton, N.J., 173 pp. (NTIS PB83-184093), 1982.</li> </ul> <p>Following documents are available online at <a href="http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/indprod.html" target="_blank">http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/indprod.html</a>.</p> <p><strong>World Ocean Atlas 2013 and Regional Climatologies series:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Boyer, T., R.A. Locarnini, M.M. Zweng, A.V. Mishonov, J.R. Reagan, J.I. Antonov, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, D.R. Johnson, D. Seidov, M.M. Biddle, M. Hamilton, 2015. Changes to calculations of the World Ocean Atlas 2013 for version 2. <a href="http://data.nodc.noaa.gov/woa/WOA13/DOC/woa13v2_changes.pdf">http://data.nodc.noaa.gov/woa/WOA13/DOC/woa13v2_changes.pdf</a>.</li> <li>Locarnini, R.A., A.V. Mishonov, J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, C.R. Paver, J.R. Reagan, D.R. Johnson, M. Hamilton, and D. Seidov, 2013. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 1: Temperature</em>. S. Levitus, Ed., A. Mishonov Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 73, 40 pp.</li> <li>Zweng, M.M, J.R. Reagan, J.I. Antonov, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, T.P. Boyer, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, D.R. Johnson, D. Seidov, M.M. Biddle, 2013. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 2: Salinity</em>. S. Levitus, Ed., A. Mishonov Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 74, 39 pp.</li> <li>Garcia, H.E., R.A. Locarnini, T.P. Boyer, J.I. Antonov, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, J.R. Reagan, D.R. Johnson, 2014. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 3: Dissolved Oxygen, Apparent Oxygen Utilization, and Oxygen Saturation</em>. S. Levitus, Ed., A. Mishonov Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 75, 27 pp</li> <li>Garcia, H.E., R.A. Locarnini, T.P. Boyer, J.I. Antonov, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, J.R. Reagan, D.R. Johnson, 2014. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 4: Dissolved Inorganic Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, silicate)</em>. S. Levitus, Ed., A. Mishonov Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 76, 25 pp.</li> <li>Boyer, T.P., S. Levitus, H.E. Garcia, R.A. Locarnini, M.M. Zweng, A.V. Mishonov, J.R. Reagan, J.I. Antonov, O.K. Baranova, M. Hamilton, D.R. Johnson, C.R. Paver, and D. Seidov, 2014. Finite time period and high resolution World Ocean Atlas 2013 climatologies and their use to study climate variability. 17th Ocean Sciences Proceedings, Honolulu, HI, poster 1713.</li> <li>Boyer, T.P., M. Biddle, M. Hamilton, A.V. Mishonov, C.R. Paver, D. Seidov, M. Zweng, 2011. Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology, NOAA/NODC, dataset doi 10.7289/V5C53HSW.</li> <li>Johnson, D.R., Boyer, T.P., 2015: Regional Climatology of the East Asian Seas: An Introduction. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 79, Silver Spring, MD, 37 pp., doi: 10.7289/V5D21VM9.</li> <li>Boyer, T.P., O.K. Baranova, M. Biddle, D.R. Johnson, A.V. Mishonov, C. Paver, D. Seidov and M. Zweng (2012), Arctic Regional Climatology, Regional Climatology Team, NOAA/NODC (<a href="http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/regional_climate/arctic">www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/regional_climate/arctic</a>).</li> <li>Seidov, D., J.I. Antonov, K.M. Arzayus, O.K. Baranova, M. Biddle, T.P. Boyer, D.R. Johnson, A.V. Mishonov, C. Paver and M.M. Zweng, 2014, Oceanography North of 60N from World Ocean Database, Progress in Oceanography, <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2014.02.003">http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2014.02.003</a>.</li> <li>Seidov, D., O.K. Baranova, M. Biddle, T.P. Boyer, D.R. Johnson, A.V. Mishonov, C. Paver and M. Zweng (2013), Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology, Regional Climatology Team, NOAA/NODC (<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.7289/V5GT5K30">http://dx.doi.org/10.7289/V5GT5K30</a>).</li> <li>Seidov, D., O.K. Baranova, D.R. Johnson, T.P. Boyer, A.V. Mishonov and A.R. Parsons (2016), Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology, Regional Climatology Team, NOAA/NCEI (<a href="http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/regional_climate/nwa-climate">www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/regional_climate/nwa-climate</a>), dataset doi:10.7289/V5RF5S2Q.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>World Ocean Atlas, 2009 series:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Locarnini, R.A., A.V. Mishonov, J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, and D.R. Johnson, 2010. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2009.</em> <em>Volume 1: Temperature.</em> S. Levitus, Ed. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 184 pp.</li> <li>Antonov, J.I., D. Seidov, T.P. Boyer, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, and D.R. Johnson, 2010. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity</em>. S. Levitus, Ed. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69, 184 pp.</li> <li>Garcia, H.E., R.A. Locarnini, T.P. Boyer, J.I. Antonov, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, and D.R. Johnson, 2010. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2009.</em> <em>Volume 3: Dissolved Oxygen, Apparent Oxygen Utilization, and Oxygen Saturation</em>. S. Levitus, Ed. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 70, 344 pp.</li> <li>Garcia, H.E., R.A. Locarnini, T.P. Boyer, J.I. Antonov, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, and D.R. Johnson, 2010. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2009. Volume 4: Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, silicate)</em>. S. Levitus, Ed. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 71, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 398 pp.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>World Ocean Atlas, 2005 series:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Locarnini, R.A., A.V. Mishonov, J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, and H.E. Garcia, 2006. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2005.</em> <em>Volume 1: Temperature</em>. S. Levitus, Ed. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 61, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 182 pp, CD-ROM.</li> <li>Antonov, J.I., R.A. Locarnini, T.P. Boyer, A.V. Mishonov, and H.E. Garcia, 2006. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2005. Volume 2</em>: Salinity. S. Levitus, Ed. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 182 pp, CD-ROM.</li> <li>Garcia, H.E., R.A. Locarnini, T.P. Boyer, and J.I. Antonov, 2006. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2005.</em> <em>Volume 3: Dissolved Oxygen, Apparent Oxygen Utilization, and Oxygen Saturation</em>. S. Levitus, Ed. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 63, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 342 pp, CD-ROM.</li> <li>Garcia, H. E., R. A. Locarnini, T. P. Boyer, and J. I. Antonov, 2006. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2005.</em> <em>Volume 4: Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, silicate)</em>. S. Levitus, Ed. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 64, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 396 pp, CD-ROM.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>World Ocean Atlas, 2001 series:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Stephens, C., J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, M.E. Conkright, R.A. Locarnini, T.D. O'Brien, H.E. Garcia, 2002. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2001. Volume 1: Temperature</em>. S. Levitus, Ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 49, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 167 pp., CD-ROMs. Online reprint (pdf): <a href="ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/data.nodc/woa/PUBLICATIONS/woa01v1d.pdf">documentation</a> (0.5 MB), <a href="ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/data.nodc/woa/PUBLICATIONS/woa01v1f.pdf">figures</a> (35 MB)</li> <li>Boyer, T.P., Stephens, C., J.I. Antonov, M.E. Conkright, R.A. Locarnini, T. D. O'Brien, H.E. Garcia, 2002. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2001. Volume 2: Salinity</em>. S. Levitus, Ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 50, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 165 pp., CD-ROMs. Online reprint (pdf): <a href="ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/data.nodc/woa/PUBLICATIONS/woa01v2d.pdf">documentation</a> (0.5 MB), <a href="ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/data.nodc/woa/PUBLICATIONS/woa01v2f.pdf">figures</a> (33 MB)</li> <li>Locarnini, R. A., T. D. O'Brien, H. E. Garcia, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, M. E. Conkright, C. Stephens, 2002. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2001. Volume 3: Oxygen</em>. S. Levitus, Ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 51, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 286 pp., CD-ROMs.</li> <li>Conkright, M.E., H.E. Garcia, T.D. O'Brien, R.A. Locarnini, T.P. Boyer, C. Stephens J.I. Antonov, 2002. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2001.</em> <em>Volume 4: Nutrients</em>. S. Levitus, Ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 52, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 392 pp., CD-ROMs.</li> <li>O'Brien, T.D., M.E. Conkright, T.P. Boyer, C. Stephens, J.I. Antonov, R.A. Locarnini, H.E. Garcia, 2002. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2001. Volume 5: Plankton.</em> S. Levitus, Ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 53, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 95 pp., CD-ROMs.</li> <li>Conkright, M.E., T.D. O'Brien, C. Stephens, R.A. Locarnini, H.E. Garcia, T.P. Boyer, J.I. Antonov, 2002. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2001. Volume 6: Chlorophyll</em>. S. Levitus, Ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 54, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 46 pp., CD-ROMs.</li> <li>Conkright M.E., R.A. Locarnini, H.E. Garcia, T. O' Brien, T.P. Boyer, C. Stephens, J.I. Antonov, 2002. <em>World Ocean Atlas 2001: Objective Analyses, Data Statistics, and Figures CD-ROM Documentation</em>, NODC Internal Report 17, Silver Spring MD, 17 pp.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>World Ocean Atlas, 1998 series:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Antonov,J., Levitus, S., T.P. Boyer, M. Conkright, T. O' Brien, C. Stephens, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 1: Temperature of the Atlantic Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 27. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 166 pp.</li> <li>Antonov,J., Levitus, S., T.P. Boyer, M. Conkright, T. O' Brien, C. Stephens, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 2: Temperature of the Pacific Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 28. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 166 pp.</li> <li>Antonov,J., Levitus, S., T.P. Boyer, M. Conkright, T. O' Brien, C. Stephens, B. Trotsenko, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 3: Temperature of the Indian Ocean.</em> NOAA Atlas NESDIS 29. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 166 pp.</li> <li>Boyer, T.P., Levitus, S., J. Antonov, M. Conkright, T. O' Brien, C. Stephens, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 4: Salinity of the Atlantic Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 30.U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 166 pp.</li> <li>Boyer, T.P., Levitus, S., J. Antonov, M. Conkright, T. O' Brien, C. Stephens, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 5: Salinity of the Pacific Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 31.U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 166 pp.</li> <li>Boyer, T.P., Levitus, S., J. Antonov, M. Conkright, T. O' Brien, C. Stephens, B. Trotsenko, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 6: Salinity of the Indian Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 32. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 166 pp.</li> <li>O' Brien, T., S. Levitus, T.P. Boyer, M. Conkright, J. Antonov, C. Stephens, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 7: Oxygen of the Atlantic Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 33. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 234 pp.</li> <li>O' Brien, T., S. Levitus, T.P. Boyer, M. Conkright, J. Antonov, C. Stephens, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 8: Oxygen of the Pacific Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 34. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 234 pp.</li> <li>O' Brien, T., S. Levitus, T.P. Boyer, M. Conkright, J. Antonov, C. Stephens, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 9: Oxygen of the Indian Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 35. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C.,234 pp.</li> <li>Conkright, M., T. O' Brien, S. Levitus, T.P. Boyer, J. Antonov, C. Stephens, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 10: Nutrients and Chlorophyll of the Atlantic Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 36.U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 245 pp.</li> <li>Conkright, T. O' Brien, M., S. Levitus, T.P. Boyer, J. Antonov, C. Stephens, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 11: Nutrients and Chlorophyll of the Pacific Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 37.U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 245 pp.</li> <li>Conkright, T. O' Brien, M., S. Levitus, T.P. Boyer, J. Antonov, C. Stephens, 1998. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1998. Volume 12: Nutrients and Chlorophyll of the Indian Ocean</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 38.U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 245 pp.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>World Ocean Atlas, 1994series:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Conkright, M.E., S. Levitus, and T.P. Boyer, 1994. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 1: Nutrients</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 1, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS.</li> <li>Levitus, S., and T. P. Boyer, 1994. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 2: Oxygen</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 2, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS.</li> <li>Levitus, S., R. Burgett and T.P. Boyer, 1994. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 3: Salinity</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS.</li> <li>Levitus, S., and T.P. Boyer, 1994. <em>World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 4: Temperature</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS.</li> <li>da Silva, A.M., C.C. Young and S. Levitus, 1994. <em>Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Volume 1: Algorithms and Procedures</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 6. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS.</li> <li>da Silva, A.M., C.C. Young and S. Levitus, 1994. <em>Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Volume 2: Anomalies of Directly Observed Quantities</em>. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 7. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS.</li> </ul> <p>##</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </main> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> Thu, 19 Dec 2013 21:49:00 +0000 ryanj 999 at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu RAPID: monitoring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/rapid-monitoring-atlantic-meridional-overturning-circulation-265%25C2%25B0n <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--title.html.twig * field--node--title--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--title.html.twig * field--node--title--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">RAPID: monitoring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ryanj</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--created.html.twig * field--node--created--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--created.html.twig * field--node--created--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 10/30/2013 - 10:27</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'layout__twocol_section' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x layout--twocol-section.html.twig x layout--twocol-section.html.twig * layout.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--system-breadcrumb-block.html.twig * block--system.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'breadcrumb' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/variables/ocean/sub-surface-temperature">Sub Surface Temperature</a> </li> </ol> </nav> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-primary-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Teaser image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/2022-03/rapid.streamfunction.png" width="700" height="700" alt="RAPID: monitoring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig * block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-main-content"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-main-content.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Main content</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--climate-dataset--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--default.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-body--default--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--rich-text--default--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--default.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--rich-text.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * field--field-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p><a href="http://www.rapid.ac.uk/rapidmoc/">"<span class="boldBrown">The Rapid Climate Change programme (<strong>RAPID</strong>)</span> explores what causes rapid switches in climate, with a main (but not exclusive) focus on the Atlantic Ocean's thermohaline circulation."</a></p> <p>"A principal objective of the RAPID programme is the development and maintenance of a pre-operational prototype system that will continuously observe the strength and structure of the MOC. An initiative has been formed to fulfill this objective and consists of three interlinked projects:</p> <ol> <li>Nineteen moorings were deployed <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="http://www.rapid.ac.uk/rapidmoc/fieldwork/March_2004/cruise_march_2004.html" target="body_frame"> in March 2004 across the Atlantic at 26.5°N</a> to measure the southward branch of the MOC <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="http://www.rapid.ac.uk/rapidmoc/publications/publications.html" target="body_frame"> (</a><span style="text-decoration: none;">Hirschi et al., 2003, Baehr et al., 2004, </span> <span style="text-decoration: none;"> Cunningham et al., 2007, Kanzow et al., 2007)</span> .</li> <li>Additional moorings were deployed on the western boundary along 26.5°N in the framework of the U.S. <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/users/mocha/new"> Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heatflux Array (MOCHA)</a> project (Prof. Bill Johns, University of Miami) to resolve transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current <span style="text-decoration: none;">(Johns et al., 2005, 2008, Bryden et al., 2005)</span>. These moorings allow surface-to-bottom density profiles along the western boundary, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and eastern boundary to be observed. As a result, the transatlantic pressure gradient can be continuously measured.</li> <li>Dr Molly Baringer (NOAA/AOML) leads the monitoring of the northward branch of the MOC using submarine telephone cables in the Florida Straits <span style="text-decoration: none;">(Baringer et al., 2001)</span>."</li> </ol> <p>An updated and extended suite of time series was released in November 2017. Some small changes were made in the calculation of the MOC. These are described in the ‘Readme' file which may be dowloaded from the WWW. This updated dataset supersedes the previous release.</p> <p> </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> </main> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> Wed, 30 Oct 2013 16:27:00 +0000 ryanj 987 at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/southern-ocean-state-estimate-sose <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--title.html.twig * field--node--title--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--title.html.twig * field--node--title--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE)</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ryanj</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--created.html.twig * field--node--created--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--created.html.twig * field--node--created--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 09/22/2013 - 13:18</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'layout__twocol_section' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x layout--twocol-section.html.twig x layout--twocol-section.html.twig * layout.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--system-breadcrumb-block.html.twig * block--system.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'breadcrumb' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/variables/ocean/sub-surface-temperature">Sub Surface Temperature</a> </li> </ol> </nav> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 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field--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Teaser image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/2022-03/SOSE-F1.png" width="1158" height="1017" alt="Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE)" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig * block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-main-content"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-main-content.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Main content</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--climate-dataset--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--default.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-body--default--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--rich-text--default--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--default.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--rich-text.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * field--field-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) is a model-generated best fit to Southern Ocean observations.  As such, it provides a quantitatively useful climatology of the mean-state of the Southern Ocean.  Technically, SOSE is a solution to the MITgcm.  SOSE is a gridded dataset at 1/6 ° horizontal resolution, available at timesteps from daily to annually.  Observations used include Argo float profiles, shipboard CTD measurements, various mooring data, satellite measurements of sea surface height and sea ice, among others. Caveats about the use of SOSE are broadly similar to issues with reanalyses, in that the SOSE is most reliable in regions and for variables with good observational coverage, and more uncertain in regions and for variables with fewer observational constraints.  Misfits to observations can also arise due to errors in the assimilation procedure and model biases.  In light of these issues, numerous validations of SOSE have been conducted, and the major biases in SOSE are well documented, as described in the Expert Guidance section of this webpage.  For climate model evaluation, SOSE provides advantages over other climatologies such as the World Ocean Atlas by providing a self-consistent state estimate that satisfies momentum, volume, heat and freshwater conservation.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-strengths"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Strengths</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-strengths.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-strengths.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-strengths field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Strengths</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Dynamically consistent, best-fit to available observations</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>High spatial (1/6 ° ) and temporal (daily) resolutions</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>Major biases are well documented</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-key-limitations"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Key Limitations</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-key-limitations.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-key-limitations.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-key-limitations field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Key Limitations</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Contains notable inconsistencies with observations, including a too-shallow pycnocline in the subpolar gyres, and too broad of a range in mixed-layer depth</p> </div> <div class="field__item"><p>No explicit uncertainty calculations provided</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-expert-developer-guidance"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Expert Developer Guidance</h2> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-expert-developer-guidance.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-expert-developer-guidance field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Expert Developer Guidance</div> <div class="field__item"><p>The following was contributed by <strong>Matthew Mazloff</strong>, September, 2016:</p> <p>A 2005-2010 Southern Ocean state estimate (SOSE) has been produced and made available (<a href="http://sose.ucsd.edu" target="_blank">http://sose.ucsd.edu</a>). The mean circulation is shown in Figure 1. It is based on the setup described in Mazloff et al. (2010). The goal of the the SOSE effort it to provide a basis for analyzing the underlying physics controlling the circulation and to provide a quantitatively useful climate baseline. This contribution to the Climate Data Guide is in keeping with the latter goal. SOSE is a dynamically mapped product, and like other mapped products has weaknesses due primarily to model error and lack of constraints. Here we inform use of the state estimate.</p> <p>The SOSE is a solution to the MITgcm. The model is configured at 1/6 ° resolution and 42 depth levels of varying thickness. It has a sea ice model, and uses the KPP mixed layer parameterization. An atmospheric boundary layer scheme is used to determine fluxes of heat, freshwater (salt), and momentum via bulk formulae (Large and Yeager 2008). What makes SOSE unique is that the initial conditions, the northern boundary condition, and the atmospheric state are solved for via the adjoint method (also known as 4D-Var). The air-sea exchanges produced are constrained to be within a reasonable range, and often correct known biases in the first guess fluxes. For more on the fluxes from SOSE see <a href="http://sose.ucsd.edu/TechDocs/SOSE_verification_example_JAN_26_2015o.pdf" target="_blank">http://sose.ucsd.edu/TechDocs/SOSE verification example JAN 26 2015o.pdf</a> or Cerovecki et al. (2011).</p> <p>SOSE constraints come from various sources. In situ measurements include those that were available from the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC; <a href="https://www.nodc.noaa.gov" target="_blank">https://www.nodc.noaa.gov</a>). This included shipboard CTD measurements, instrument-mounted elephant seal profiles (now known as the MEOP program), and Argo float profiles. The CliVar and Carbon Hydrographic Data Office (CCHDO) was also used, and redundancies between this repository and NODC were removed. Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) profiles were obtained from <a href="http://www-hrx.ucsd.edu" target="_blank">http://www-hrx.ucsd.edu</a>. Process study field program data was also used as a constraint when available. Measurements from these include those taken as part of the Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES) project, the mooring array in Drake Passage from the cDrake program, and the shipboard and mooring data in the Amundsen Sea from the Oden expeditions. Measurements from the Antarctic Marine Living Resources Long Term Ecological Research program (AMLR-LTER) were also used. Satellite measurements included sea surface height measurements obtained from the Radar Altimetry Database System (RADS; <a href="http://rads.tudelft.nl" target="_blank">http://rads.tudelft.n</a>l), optimally interpolated sea surface temperature from microwave radiometers (<a href="http://www.remss.com" target="_blank">http://www.remss.com</a>), sea ice concentrations from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (<a href="https://nsidc.org" target="_blank">https://nsidc.org</a>). Constraints also included bottom pressure estimates (<a href="http://grace.jpl.nasa.gov/data/get-data/ocean-bottom-pressure" target="_blank">http://grace.jpl.nasa.gov/data/get-data/ocean-bottom-pressure</a>) and mean dynamic topography obtained from the Technical University of Denmark (<a href="http://www.space.dtu.dk/english" target="_blank">http://www.space.dtu.dk/english</a>).</p> <p>As a mapped product the SOSE output may be easily compared to the ocean state from climate models. To understand the importance of discrepancies, however, requires understanding where SOSE is consistent with observations and where it is problematic. Uncertainty in SOSE arises from lack of constraints and model errors. One can get a feel for both components by looking at the fit to Argo measurements. In regions where no misfit is plotted the solution is likely uncertain due to lack of sufficient constraints. In regions where there is a large misfit to Argo it is likely that errors in the assimilation procedure produced an uncertain SOSE.</p> <p> </p> <p>Below we answer some “general Climate Data Guide questions."</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>What are the key limitations of this data set?</strong></p> <p>The SOSE solution does have some inconsistencies with the observations. With adjoint method optimization it is often most challenging to fit the halocline and thermocline variability, and as a measure of this fit we compare the solution to Argo at 100m. Figure (2) and (3) shows the model is too warm and salty at this depth poleward of 60° S. This implies that the pycnocline is too shallow in the subpolar gyres, consistent with the bias assessment for the Amundsen Sea in Rodriguez et al. (2016). Another significant bias is that the Argentine basin is too cold and fresh. A mean bias is not obvious in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. At 1,500 m time mean biases are apparent, but far less significant (Fig. 4 and 5). A notable bias is that the Agulhas Retroflection and Subantarctic Front region in the Indian Sector is warmer and fresher than observed.</p> <p>Upper ocean stratification is assessed here (Figures 6-9) by sampling the model as Argo sampled the true ocean, and then estimating mixed layer depth from those profiles by calculating the depth where the potential density exceeds the surface potential density by 0.3 kg m<sup>−3</sup>. Though differences are subtle, it is often the case that when observed mixed layers are shallow the SOSE mixed layers are too shallow, and when observed mixed layers are deep the SOSE mixed layers are too deep.</p> <p>Though not a user-friendly document, <a href="http://sose.ucsd.edu/TechDocs/combinedpdf_iter100.pdf" target="_blank">http://sose.ucsd.edu/TechDocs/combinedpdf iter100.pdf</a>, does provide more comparisons to in situ constraints and may be useful if there is a specific comparison one wishes to investigate. More examples of validation are given in the next section. Users are also encouraged to contact us to discuss SOSE limitations (contact information at <a href="http://sose.ucsd.edu" target="_blank">http://sose.ucsd.edu</a>).</p> <p><strong><br /></strong></p> <p><strong>What are the key strengths of this data set?</strong></p> <p>The great benefit of the SOSE solution is that it is a gridded product that obeys model physics and is largely consistent with observations. That it is a model solution makes it accessible to a large user community. As noted directly above, there are some inconsistencies between the SOSE solution and observations. These are, however, documented. Besides the validation above, documentation can be found on <a href="http://sose.ucsd.edu" target="_blank">http://sose.ucsd.edu</a> and in numerous publications. For example, extensive validation of the surface hydrography and sea ice is in the supplementary material of Abernathey et al. (2016). Extensive validation of the properties and evolution of mode water has been published in Cerovecki and Mazloff (2015) and at <a href="http://sose.ucsd.edu/TechDocs/Cerovecki_SOSE60_biases.pdf" target="_blank">http://sose.ucsd.edu/TechDocs/Cerovecki SOSE60 biases.pdf</a>. The mean sea surface height is discussed in Griesel et al. (2012). The velocity structure in Drake Passage is compared to observations in Firing et al. (2011). Assessment of the surface fluxes is available in Cerovecki et al. (2011). Some of these references evaluate older SOSE iterations, but in general the conclusions hold for the most recent published SOSE solution available at <a href="http://sose.ucsd.edu/sose_stateestimation_data_05to10.html" target="_blank">http://sose.ucsd.edu/sose state estimation data 05to10.htm</a>l. Extensive documentation makes it possible to determine the accuracy of SOSE with respect to a certain metric, dataset, or region.</p> <p> We note that this SOSE setup is no longer under development. Current development is towards the goal of estimating the Southern Ocean carbon cycle as part of the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling project (<a href="http://soccom.princeton.edu/" target="_blank">http://soccom.princeton.edu/)</a>. The validation of the solution discussed here does not reflect the biogeochemical SOSE effort. Validation for that effort is being documented at <a href="http://sose.ucsd.edu/bsose_valid.html" target="_blank">http://sose.ucsd.edu/bsose valid.html</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>What are the typical research applications of this data set?</strong></p> <p>SOSE is an estimate of the baseline Southern Ocean state, which may be used to validate climate models. It is also a resource for understanding the Southern Ocean governing dynamics. It has been used, for example, to understand what governs the SO momentum budget (Mazloff et al. 2014; Masich et al. 2015) and heat budget (Tamsitt et al. 2016).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>What are the most common mistakes that users encounter when processing or interpreting these data?</strong></p> <p>There is no “nudging” to the observational constraints in SOSE (i.e. no unphysical sources or sinks in the governing dynamics). Because we have a strong constraint to obey model physics the fronts and eddies are usually not in the right place at the right time. The initial goal of SOSE is to attain consistency with the observed large scale ocean structure.</p> <p>The resolution and constraints are poor near Antarctica. SOSE has been used to study regions poleward of the ACC, however, one should keep in mind the heightened uncertainty in this region.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>What are some comparable data sets?</strong></p> <p>SOSE is produced by the consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO; <a href="http://ecco-group.org/" target="_blank">http://ecco-group.org/</a>). Comparable datasets are produced by this group, including a global ocean state estimate for the years 1992 to 2015 (Forget et al. 2015). See <a href="http://ecco-group.org/products.htm" target="_blank">http://ecco-group.org/products.htm</a> for a list of ECCO products.</p> <p>Climatologies (e.g. the World Ocean Atlas) are often used to evaluate climate models, and SOSE may also be used this way. There will be differences between SOSE and climatologies due to discrepancies in the way the products were derived and the constraints used. No mapping method is truly optimal. Weaknesses in SOSE with respect to climatologies include the fact that SOSE is more likely to introduce biases and drifts due to numerical model errors. Climatologies have errors due to assumptions in the prescribed spatial correlation scales and a poor accounting for temporal correlations. As observational density increases objectively mapped products can better account for temporal information, and we are now seeing this with the Argo objectively mapped product (<a href="http://sio-argo.ucsd.edu/RG_Climatology.html" target="_blank">http://sio-argo.ucsd.edu/RG Climatology.html</a>). Nevertheless, these climatologies only map temperature and salinity and do not propagate information between other components of the system. An advantage of the SOSE resource is that it provides a self-consistent mapped state, with stable stratification and velocities that satisfy momentum conservation.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>How is uncertainty characterized in these data?</strong></p> <p>A formal uncertainty map is not provided. One can gauge uncertainty as discussed above in the section on “key limitations”</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Were corrections made to account for changes in observing systems or practices, sampling density, satellite drift, or similar issues?</strong></p> <p>The time period of the optimization, 2005–2010, is one where the Southern Ocean observing system was rather stable. It was not necessary to account for any changes in the the observing system. Though the optimization procedure for 2005-2007 was different than 2008-2010, we do not believe it led to a change in the consistency with observations in these two periods.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>How do I best compare these data with model output?</strong></p> <p>As the SOSE is model output, it is rather straightforward to compare to other model solutions. SOSE is on a C-grid at 1/6 ° resolution and interpolation is likely necessary. SOSE is available as daily, 5-day, monthly, and annual averages at <a href="http://sose.ucsd.edu/sose_stateestimation_data_05to10.html" target="_blank">http://sose.ucsd.edu/sose stateestimation data 05to10.html</a>. SOSE uses partial cells; for integrated calculations (e.g. transport) one should use the appropriate cell height fractions. Please contact us if you have any questions (contact information at <a href="http://sose.ucsd.edu" target="_blank">http://sose.ucsd.edu</a>).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Are there spurious (non-climatic) features in the temporal record?</strong></p> <p>There should be no spurious (non-climatic) features in the temporal record. There is, however, a known adiabatic drift in the circumpolar deep water classes in the Pacific Sector. This drift is discussed in Cerovecki and Mazloff (2015).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Acknowledgments</strong></p> <p>SOSE was produced by the ECCO consortium with support from several NASA and NSF grants. Computational resourced were provided by the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by NSF grant number MCA06N007. We are grateful to the very large group of oceanographers who collected and processed the observations used here; without whom none of this would be possible.</p> <p>When using the SOSE solution please reference Mazloff et al. (2010). ##</p> <p> </p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </main> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> Sun, 22 Sep 2013 19:18:00 +0000 ryanj 971 at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu Tropical Moored Buoy System: TAO, TRITON, PIRATA, RAMA (TOGA) https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/tropical-moored-buoy-system-tao-triton-pirata-rama-toga <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--title.html.twig * field--node--title--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--title.html.twig * field--node--title--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Tropical Moored Buoy System: TAO, TRITON, PIRATA, RAMA (TOGA)</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ryanj</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--created.html.twig * field--node--created--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--created.html.twig * field--node--created--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 04/09/2013 - 05:27</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'layout__twocol_section' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x layout--twocol-section.html.twig x layout--twocol-section.html.twig * layout.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--system-breadcrumb-block.html.twig * block--system.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'breadcrumb' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/variables/ocean/sub-surface-temperature">Sub Surface Temperature</a> </li> </ol> </nav> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-primary-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Teaser image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/2022-03/teaser_images_556.png" width="1400" height="490" alt="Tropical Moored Buoy System: TAO, TRITON, PIRATA, RAMA (TOGA)" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig * block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-main-content"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-main-content.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Main content</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--climate-dataset--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--default.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-body--default--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--rich-text--default--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--default.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--rich-text.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * field--field-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere program (TOGA) is a component of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) aimed specifically at the prediction of climate phenomena on time scales of months to years. In order to achieve the TOGA goals, a strategy of large-scale, long-term monitoring of the upper ocean and the atmosphere has been developed. In particular, several moored bouy projects have been developed. <span class="style30">The Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array is a multi-national effort to provide data in real-time for climate research and forecasting. Major components include the <a href="http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/">TAO/TRITON</a> array in the Pacific, <a href="http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/pirata/">PIRATA</a> in the Atlantic, and <a href="http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/">RAMA</a> in the Indian Ocean. </span> The TAO array (renamed the TAO/TRITON array on 1 January 2000) consists of approximately 70 moorings in the Tropical Pacific Ocean; PIRATA use ~20 bouys; and, RAMA uses ~23 bouys.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> </main> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> Tue, 09 Apr 2013 11:27:00 +0000 ryanj 918 at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu World Ocean Atlas (WOA09) https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/world-ocean-atlas-woa09 <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--title.html.twig * field--node--title--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--title.html.twig * field--node--title--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">World Ocean Atlas (WOA09)</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--uid.html.twig * field--node--uid--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ryanj</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset--rss--created.html.twig * field--node--created--rss.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--created.html.twig * field--node--created--climate-dataset.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 12/05/2011 - 05:20</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'layout__twocol_section' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x layout--twocol-section.html.twig x layout--twocol-section.html.twig * layout.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--system-breadcrumb-block.html.twig * block--system.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'breadcrumb' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/variables/ocean/sub-surface-temperature">Sub Surface Temperature</a> </li> </ol> </nav> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/navigation/breadcrumb.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * block--field-block--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig x block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-primary-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-primary-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Teaser image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/2022-03/teaser_images_633.png" width="471" height="301" alt="World Ocean Atlas (WOA09)" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'block' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * block--field-block--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * block--field-block--node.html.twig * block--field-block.html.twig * block--layout-builder.html.twig * block.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodeclimate-datasetfield-main-content"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--climate-dataset---custom--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content---custom.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset--default.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--node--field-main-content.html.twig * field--node--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--field-main-content.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Main content</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--climate-dataset--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text--default.html.twig * paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-body--default--climate-dataset.html.twig * field--rich-text--default--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--default.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body--rich-text.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-body.html.twig * field--paragraph--rich-text.html.twig * field--field-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) is a set of objectively analyzed (1 degree grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU), percent oxygen saturation, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at standard depth levels for annual, seasonal, and monthly compositing periods for the World Ocean. It also includes associated statistical fields of observed oceanographic profile data interpolated to standard depth levels on both 1 degree and 5 degree grids. Non-gridded data are also available.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/composer/paragraphs/templates/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/block/block--field-block--field-main-content.html.twig' --> </main> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'profiles/composer/unity-profile/themes/unity/templates/layout/layout--twocol-section.html.twig' --> Mon, 05 Dec 2011 12:20:00 +0000 ryanj 698 at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu