Global Ocean Salinity Change, 1950-2008 (Durack-Wijffels)
Using data from the Indian Ocean Hydrobase (IOHB) (Kobayashi et al., 2006), Hydrobase2 (Curry, 2002), and Southern Ocean Atlas (Orsi and Whitworth, 2010) databases along with the improved spatial and temporal coverage provided by ARGO profiling data, new estimates of ocean salinity and temperature change (0-2000m) for the period 1950-2008 are derived. The data have been used to track changes in the hydrological cycle associated with global warming.
Combines temporally and spatially sparse high-quality hydrographic data with improved global coverage provided by Argo data since around 2004
Analysis attempts to minimise aliasing associated with the seasonal and major global El Nino-Southern Oscillation modes.
Error estimates provided
The historical hydrographic database is temporally and spatially sparse, with very poor coverage in the Southern Hemisphere prior to the Argo period (2004-present).
When using this data, please cite Durack & Wijffels, 2010 and include recognition of the global Argo program in the acknowledgements: "This analysis is based on data made freely available by the International Argo Program and the national programs that contribute to it (http://www.argo.ucsd.edu)."
Argo float data, ocean hydrographic database
1 degree latitude (70S to 70N), 2 degrees longitude (0 to 358), 66 vertical levels (0 to 2000 dbar)
- Durack, Paul J., Susan E. Wijffels, 2010: Fifty-Year Trends in Global Ocean Salinities and Their Relationship to Broad-Scale Warming. J. Climate, 23, 4342–4362.
- Kobayashi and Suga (2006), The Indian Ocean HydroBase: A high-quality climatological dataset for the Indian Ocean, Progress in Oceanography 68, 75-114
- Durack, PJ, SE Wijffels, and RJ Matear, (2012), Ocean Salinities Reveal Strong Global Water Cycle Intensification During 1950 to 2000, Science, 366, 455-458.
- Hydrobase2/3: Curry, R., cited. 2002: Hydrobase2: A database of hydrographic profiles and tools for climatological analysis. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute.
- WOCE Southern Ocean Atlas: Orsi, A. H., and T. Whitworth, cited. 2010: Southern Ocean. Vol. 1, Hydrographic Atlas of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), Texas A&M University.
- Rhein, MS et al (2013), Observations: Ocean (Chapter 3). In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change