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CERES: IGBP Land Classification CERES: IGBP Land Classification
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The International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) defines ecosystems surface classifications. The CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System)10-minute data can be used to derive the land categories. 

Main variables and Earth System components

Land Land Cover Type Vegetation Cover
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Last updated 1 week ago
) Example of CloudSat and CALIPSO cloud mask along a single orbit. (contributed by Leah Bertrand) Combined CloudSat spaceborne radar and CALIPSO spaceborne lidar cloud fraction dataset (3S-GEOPROF-COMB)
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A global (82S-82N) cloud fraction data set, providing a unique view of cloud vertical structure, has been developed based on the complimentary spaceborne remote sensing capabilities of the CloudSat radar and the CALISPSO lidar. The data set provides monthly mean cloud…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Cloud Properties
Last updated 1 month 3 weeks ago
Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI)
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The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) is an extension of the widely used Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The SPEI is designed to take into account both precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in determining drought. Thus,…

Main variables and Earth System components

Last updated 1 month 3 weeks ago
NP Index North Pacific (NP) Index by Trenberth and Hurrell; monthly and winter
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The North Pacific Index (NP index or NPI) is the area-weighted sea level pressure over the region 30°N-65°N, 160°E-140°W. The NP index is defined to measure interannual to decadal variations in the atmospheric circulation. The dominant atmosphere-ocean relation in the…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Sea Level Pressure
Last updated 1 month 4 weeks ago
timeseries of signal and noise in the SOI Southern Oscillation Indices: Signal, Noise and Tahiti/Darwin SLP (SOI)
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The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is a time series used to characterize the large scale sea level pressure (SLP) patterns in the tropical Pacific. Monthly mean SLP at Tahiti [T] and Darwin [D] are used. An optimal SOI can be constructed. It consists of  [T-D] which…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Sea Level Pressure
Last updated 1 month 4 weeks ago
NAM Spatial Pattern (DJFM) Hurrell wintertime SLP-based Northern Annular Mode (NAM) Index
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The NAM (or Arctic Oscillation) is defined as the first EOF of NH (20°-90°N) winter SLP data. It explains 23% of the extended winter mean (December-March) variance, and it is clearly dominated by the NAO structure in the Atlantic sector. Although there are some subtle…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Sea Level Pressure
Last updated 1 month 4 weeks ago
PC-based DJFM NAO Index 1899-2024 Hurrell North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index (PC-based)
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The principal component (PC)-based indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are the time series of the leading Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of SLP anomalies over the Atlantic sector, 20°-80°N, 90°W-40°E. These indices are used to measure the NAO…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Sea Level Pressure
Last updated 1 month 4 weeks ago
Sea Ice Concentration: NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record Sea Ice Concentration: NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record
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The NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record (CDR) of sea ice concentration is available at 25 x 25 km spatial resolution in daily or monthly timesteps for 1987-2014. It provides a consistent interpretation of sea ice for the satellite record, with the intent of being suitable for…

Main variables and Earth System components

Cryosphere Sea Ice Concentration Ocean
Last updated 2 months 1 week ago
Nino SST Indices (Nino 1+2, 3, 3.4, 4; ONI and TNI) Nino SST Indices (Nino 1+2, 3, 3.4, 4; ONI and TNI)
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There are several indices used to monitor the tropical Pacific, all of which are based on sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies averaged across a given region.  Usually the anomalies are computed relative to a base period of 30 years.  The Niño 3.4 index…

Main variables and Earth System components

Ocean SST - sea surface temperature
Last updated 2 months 4 weeks ago
GPCP (Monthly): Global Precipitation Climatology Project GPCP (Monthly): Global Precipitation Climatology Project
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Data from rain gauge stations, satellites, and sounding observations have been merged to estimate monthly rainfall on a 2.5-degree global grid from 1979 to the present. The careful combination of satellite-based rainfall estimates provides the most complete analysis of…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Precipitation
Last updated 3 months ago