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Hurrell North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index (PC-based) Hurrell North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index (PC-based)
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The principal component (PC)-based indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are the time series of the leading Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of SLP anomalies over the Atlantic sector, 20°-80°N, 90°W-40°E. These indices are used to measure the…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Sea Level Pressure
Last updated 4 weeks 2 days ago
NASA's MERRA2 reanalysis NASA's MERRA2 reanalysis
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The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) is a global atmospheric reanalysis produced by the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). It spans the satellite observing era from 1980 to the present. The…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Aerosols Air Temperature Geopotential Height Precipitable water
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    • Sub-daily, Daily, Monthly
    • Collections

Last updated 1 month ago
timeseries of signal and noise in the SOI Southern Oscillation Indices: Signal, Noise and Tahiti/Darwin SLP (SOI)
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The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is a time series used to characterize the large scale sea level pressure (SLP) patterns in the tropical Pacific. Monthly mean SLP at Tahiti [T] and Darwin [D] are used. An optimal SOI can be constructed. It consists of…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Sea Level Pressure
Last updated 1 month ago
COSP: Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package COSP: Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package
  • Years of record

Cloud processes and feedbacks are recognized as the largest uncertainty in climate model projections of climate change. Progress in understanding the roles of clouds in climate change has in part been hampered by the lack of a consistent definition of clouds…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Cloud Properties
Last updated 1 month 1 week ago
Amundsen Sea Low indices Amundsen Sea Low indices
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The Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) is a climatological low pressure center located over the extreme southern Pacific Ocean, off the coast of West Antarctica.  Atmospheric variability in this region is larger than anywhere else in the Southern Hemisphere, and…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Sea Level Pressure
Last updated 2 months 1 week ago
Nino SST Indices (Nino 1+2, 3, 3.4, 4; ONI and TNI) Nino SST Indices (Nino 1+2, 3, 3.4, 4; ONI and TNI)
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There are several indices used to monitor the tropical Pacific, all of which are based on sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies averaged across a given region.  Usually the anomalies are computed relative to a base period of 30 years.  The Niño…

Main variables and Earth System components

Ocean SST - sea surface temperature
Last updated 2 months 3 weeks ago
Global (land) precipitation and temperature:  Willmott & Matsuura, University of Delaware Global (land) precipitation and temperature: Willmott & Matsuura, University of Delaware
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A series of gridded temperature and precipitation data sets. Station records that served as bases for the Terrestrial Air Temperature: 1900-2014 Gridded Monthly Time Series (Version 4.01) and Terrestrial Precipitation: 1900-2014 Gridded Monthly Time Series (…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Air Temperature Air Temperature at 2m Precipitation
Last updated 2 months 3 weeks ago
APHRODITE: Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources APHRODITE: Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources
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APHRODITE’s (Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation) gridded precipitation is a set of long-term (1951 onward) continental-scale daily products that is based on a dense network of rain-gauge data for Asia…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Air Temperature Precipitation
Last updated 3 months ago
The North Pacific Index (NP index or NPI)  is the area-weighted sea level pressure over the region 30°N-65°N, 160°E-140°W. The NP index is defined to measure interannual to decadal variations in the atmospheric circulation. North Pacific (NP) Index by Trenberth and Hurrell; monthly and winter
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The North Pacific Index (NP index or NPI) is the area-weighted sea level pressure over the region 30°N-65°N, 160°E-140°W. The NP index is defined to measure interannual to decadal variations in the atmospheric circulation. The dominant atmosphere-ocean relation…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Sea Level Pressure
Last updated 4 months 1 week ago
JRA-55 JRA-55
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Spanning 1958-present, JRA-55 is the longest third-generation reanalysis that uses the full observing system (in contrast, products like ERA-20C and NOAA 20CR assimilate a very limited set of observations while NCEP R1 uses an antiquated model and assimilation…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Air Temperature Geopotential Height Precipitable water
    • Timestep

    • Sub-daily, Monthly
    • Collections

Last updated 4 months 2 weeks ago