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ERA40 ERA40
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ERA 40 is a second generation reanalysis. It is the first reanalysis to directly assimilate satellite radiance data (TOVS, SSM/I, ERS and ATOVS). Cloud Motion Winds are also used. The result is better circulation over the tropics and southern hemisphere.…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Air Temperature Geopotential Height Water Vapor
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Last updated 3 weeks 6 days ago
GODAS: NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System GODAS: NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System
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GODAS is a real-time ocean analysis and a reanalysis. It is used for monitoring, retrospective analysis as well as for providing oceanic initial conditions for the CFS. Both temperature and synthetic salinity profiles are assimilated in a 3DVAR scheme.…

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Last updated 3 weeks 6 days ago
North Pacific (NP) Index  by Trenberth and Hurrell; monthly and winter North Pacific (NP) Index by Trenberth and Hurrell; monthly and winter
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The North Pacific Index (NP index or NPI) is the area-weighted sea level pressure over the region 30°N-65°N, 160°E-140°W. The NP index is defined to measure interannual to decadal variations in the atmospheric circulation. The dominant atmosphere-ocean relation…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Sea Level Pressure
Last updated 3 weeks 6 days ago
Station based DJFM NAO Index Hurrell North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index (station-based)
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The winter (December thru March) station-based index of the NAO is based on the difference of normalized sea level pressure (SLP) between Lisbon, Portugal and Stykkisholmur/Reykjavik, Iceland since 1864. Positive values of the NAO index are typically associated…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Sea Level Pressure
Last updated 3 weeks 6 days ago
Hurrell North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index (PC-based) Hurrell North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index (PC-based)
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The principal component (PC)-based indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are the time series of the leading Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of SLP anomalies over the Atlantic sector, 20°-80°N, 90°W-40°E. These indices are used to measure the NAO…

Main variables and Earth System components

Sea Level Pressure Atmosphere
Last updated 3 weeks 6 days ago
Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI)
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The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) uses readily available temperature and precipitation data to estimate relative dryness. It is a standardized index that generally spans -10 (dry) to +10 (wet). Maps of operational agencies like NOAA typically show a…

Main variables and Earth System components

Land Drought
Last updated 3 weeks 6 days ago
Freshwater Discharge: 1948-2004 Freshwater Discharge: 1948-2004
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"A dataset of historical monthly streamflow at the farthest downstream stations for the world’s 925 largest ocean-reaching rivers has been created for community use. Compared with previous studies, the new dataset has improved homogeneity and enables more…

Main variables and Earth System components

Land Runoff and Streamflow
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Last updated 3 weeks 6 days ago
TRMM: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TRMM: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
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The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a joint space mission between NASA and Japan's National Space Development Agency designed to monitor and study tropical and subtropical precipitation and the associated release of energy. The mission uses 5…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Precipitation
Last updated 3 weeks 6 days ago
CMAP: CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation CMAP: CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation
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CMAP refers to a collection of precipitation data sets, though the 2.5°x2.5° global monthly version is probably the most widely used. This data set is constructed from an analysis of gauge data and satellite-derived precipitation estimates. An "enhanced"…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Precipitation
Last updated 3 weeks 6 days ago
GPCP (Monthly): Global Precipitation Climatology Project GPCP (Monthly): Global Precipitation Climatology Project
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Data from rain gauge stations, satellites, and sounding observations have been merged to estimate monthly rainfall on a 2.5-degree global grid from 1979 to the present. The careful combination of satellite-based rainfall estimates provides the most complete…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Precipitation
Last updated 3 weeks 6 days ago