SST data: COBE: Centennial in situ Observation-Based Estimates

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SST data: COBE: Centennial in situ Observation-Based Estimates
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The COBE data set is a spatially complete, interpolated 1°x1° SST product for 1891 to present. It combines SSTs from ICOADS release 2.0, the Japanese Kobe collection, and reports from ships and buoys. Data are gridded using optimal interpolation. As in HadISST, data up to 1941 were bias-adjusted using the "bucket correction." Prior to the interpolation analyses, data were also subject to quality control using a-priori thresholds, and nearby observations were combined. COBE data have been used in the JRA Reanalyses and for AMIP experiments.

Key Strengths

Key Strengths

Kobe collection improves data coverage compared to earlier releases of ICOADS that were used in other gridded reconstructions (ICOADS 2.5 includes Kobe)

Key Limitations

Key Limitations

Compared to modern benchmarks (e.g. HadSST3), the bias adjustments and uncertainty estimates are somewhat primitive

Please cite data sources, following the data providers' instructions
Dataset DOIs
Hosted Climate Index Files
Usage Restrictions

Cite this page

Acknowledgement of any material taken from or knowledge gained from this page is appreciated:

National Center for Atmospheric Research Staff (Eds). Last modified "The Climate Data Guide: SST data: COBE: Centennial in situ Observation-Based Estimates.” Retrieved from on 2024-07-21.

Citation of datasets is separate and should be done according to the data providers' instructions. If known to us, data citation instructions are given in the Data Access section, above.

Acknowledgement of the Climate Data Guide project is also appreciated:

Schneider, D. P., C. Deser, J. Fasullo, and K. E. Trenberth, 2013: Climate Data Guide Spurs Discovery and Understanding. Eos Trans. AGU, 94, 121–122,

Key Figures

Other Information

Earth system components and main variables
Type of data product

Years of record
Data time period extended
Yes, data set is extended
Input Data

ICOADS, Kobe Collection, buoys, GTS

Vertical Levels:
Missing Data Flag
Spatially complete
Ocean or Land
Ocean Only
Spatial Resolution


Model Resolution (reanalysis)
Data Assimilation Method
Model Vintage (reanalysis)

Key Publications
Not available...