Climate Data

The Climate Data Guide curates expert insights on over 200 observational datasets and climate indices, searchable or browseable in the list below.

To find a specific dataset or climate variable, jump to the the search box. For only the datasets paired with guidance written by experts, select the "Datasets with guidance" button when using the search box.

Data creators, data publishers, and scientists who use climate data are invited to join our Network of Experts by contributing commentaries on data strengths and limitations to the Climate Data Guide. What type of data are included? See this discussion.

With the exception of about 25 climate indices, the Climate Data Guide does not host datasets.  Data cannot be download from this site. However, links are provided to download locations under the "Data Access" section of each dataset page.

Climate datasets

Has expert guidance
Sea ice concentration data from NASA Goddard based on SSMI and NASA Team (NT2) algorithm Sea ice concentration data from NASA Goddard based on SSMI and NASA Team (NT2) algorithm
  • Years of record

  • to

The NASA Team 2 (NT2) / SSMI data set of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice concentration is available at daily timesteps and 25km spatial resolution for 1992-2008. NT2, an extension of the original NASA Team algorithm, uses SSMI 85GHz channels to help resolve…

Main variables and Earth System components

Cryosphere Sea Ice Concentration Ocean
  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
Snow Water Equivalent (AMSR-E) Snow Water Equivalent (AMSR-E)
  • Years of record

  • to

The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) distributes daily, weekly, and monthly products which includes snow water equivalent. Note: "On 04 October 2011, the AMSR-E instrument on board the Aqua satellite stopped producing data…

Main variables and Earth System components

Cryosphere Snow Water Equivalent
  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
Global Monthly EASE-Grid Snow Water Equivalent Climatology: SSMR, SSMI Global Monthly EASE-Grid Snow Water Equivalent Climatology: SSMR, SSMI
  • Years of record

  • to

This data set comprises global, monthly satellite-derived snow water equivalent (SWE) climatologies from November 1978 through May 2007, and is updated with more recent data periodically. Global data are gridded to the Northern and Southern 25 km Equal-Area…

Main variables and Earth System components

Cryosphere Snow Water Equivalent
  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT)
  • Years of record

  • to

"The Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) is a multidisciplinary programme which undertakes biological, chemical and physical oceanographic research during an annual voyage between the UK and destinations in the South Atlantic." As of early November, 2013, there…

Main variables and Earth System components

  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
HadDTR: Hadley Centre sea-surface temperature diurnal temperature range climatology HadDTR: Hadley Centre sea-surface temperature diurnal temperature range climatology
  • Years of record

The Hadley Centre sea-surface temperature diurnal temperature range climatology is a 5x5 degree gridded climatology of the diurnal range of sea surface temperature as measured by drifting buoys.

Main variables and Earth System components

Ocean SST - sea surface temperature SST diurnal range
    • Timestep

    • Climatology
    • Collections

    • None
  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
CARINA: Carbon in the North Altantic CARINA: Carbon in the North Altantic
  • Years of record

  • to

The CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) data synthesis project is an international collaborative effort of the EU IP CARBOOCEAN, and US partners. It has produced a merged internally consistent data set of open ocean subsurface measurements for…

Main variables and Earth System components

Ocean CO2: CarbonDioxide
  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
MEaSUREs:  Northern Hemisphere Terrestrial Snow Cover Extent Weekly 100km EASE-Grid 2.0 MEaSUREs: Northern Hemisphere Terrestrial Snow Cover Extent Weekly 100km EASE-Grid 2.0
  • Years of record

  • to

"This data set offers users weekly 100 km Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent represented by three different variables. Two of the variables are derived from individual source products: the NOAA/NCDC Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Extent Climate Data Record…

Main variables and Earth System components

Cryosphere Snow Cover
  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
FLASHFlux: Fast Longwave And Shortwave Radiative Fluxes FLASHFlux: Fast Longwave And Shortwave Radiative Fluxes
  • Years of record

  • to

FLASHFlux provides near real-time (7-8 days) quantification of surface radiative fluxes which are important for understanding the impact of changes to the Earth's surface and the atmospheric state on surface radiative fluxes. An operational subsystem which uses…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Radiation
    • Timestep

    • Daily
    • Collections

    • None
  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
Global Ocean Salinity Change, 1950-2008 (Durack-Wijffels) Global Ocean Salinity Change, 1950-2008 (Durack-Wijffels)
  • Years of record

  • to

Using data from the Indian Ocean Hydrobase (IOHB) (Kobayashi et al., 2006), Hydrobase2 (Curry, 2002), and Southern Ocean Atlas (Orsi and Whitworth, 2010) databases along with the improved spatial and temporal coverage provided by ARGO profiling data, new…

Main variables and Earth System components

  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
MOCHA: Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) and Heatflux Array MOCHA: Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) and Heatflux Array
  • Years of record

  • to

"MOCHA is a collaborative project, partnered with the UK RAPID Program, to measure the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and ocean heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean ."

Main variables and Earth System components

  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
Stratospheric & Tropospheric Ozone: ACC/SPARC (Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate / Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate) Stratospheric & Tropospheric Ozone: ACC/SPARC (Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate / Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate)
  • Years of record

  • to

"The AC&C/SPARC ozone database covers the period 1850 to 2100 and can be used as forcing in climate models that do not include interactive chemistry. The historical part of the AC&C/SPARC ozone database spans the period 1850 to 2009 and consists of…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Ozone: Stratospheric
  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None
Stratospheric Ozone: Randel & Wu 2007 Stratospheric Ozone: Randel & Wu 2007
  • Years of record

  • to

This is a monthly, zonal-mean ozone profile data set spanning 1979–2005 for altitudes from the tropopause up to 50 km. Interannual variability is based on a combination of SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) satellite profile measurements and polar…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Ozone: Stratospheric
Stratospheric Ozone: Vertically Resolved, zonal mean based on BDBP Stratospheric Ozone: Vertically Resolved, zonal mean based on BDBP
  • Years of record

  • to

Combined monthly mean vertical ozone profile database spanning the period 1979 to 2007. The database is completely filled such that there are no missing data. The raw individual ozone data are sourced from the BDBP database.  Monthly means are calculated from…

Main variables and Earth System components

Atmosphere Ozone: Stratospheric
    • Timestep

    • Monthly
    • Collections

    • None
RAPID: monitoring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N RAPID: monitoring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N
  • Years of record

  • to

"The Rapid Climate Change programme (RAPID) explores what causes rapid switches in climate, with a main (but not exclusive) focus on the Atlantic Ocean's thermohaline circulation." "A principal objective of the RAPID programme is the development and maintenance…

Main variables and Earth System components

Ocean Salinity Sub Surface Temperature heat flux streamfunction
  • Experts contributing reviews

  • None